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  • We’ve read through this guide and stand by our current picks, last made in 2020.

July 20, 2021

Most countertop microwaves are just variations of the same cheap-but-decent machine, built by the same manufacturer (Midea) in the same factory with the same core components. The Toshiba EM131A5C stands out a little from this mass of low-cost clones simply because it looks nicer and has a few useful features that you don’t usually get at this price.

Our pick

The Toshiba Toshiba EM131A5C is usually the most affordable microwave that has a full stainless (or black stainless) front finish, rather than the typical glossy black plastic with partial stainless trim. This model also has a door handle, which we found easier to open and easier to clean than the button-style release on most cheap microwaves. Best of all, you can mute the microwave—a rare feature that lets you stealthily reheat midnight snacks without waking up the rest of the house. Like most microwaves, the Toshiba also has a number of express-cooking options, and it heats food quickly and pretty evenly.

If you’re a little short on counter space or you want to save a few bucks, you could also consider the Toshiba ML2-EM25PAE. It has most of the same features as the EM131A5C, but it’s a bit smaller and doesn’t have a sensor for auto-heating modes.

Don’t count on these Toshiba microwaves to work better or last any longer than other microwaves you’ll find for a similar price. There’s a ton of evidence that they’re essentially the same microwaves as most models sold by GE, Whirlpool, Sharp, Amazon, Magic Chef, Black+Decker—the list goes on.

If our other picks are sold out or are a little too expensive for your tastes, you can choose from tons of other cheap microwaves and still get the same cooking performance and expected reliability. The look and the controls are all slightly different, but they’re clones at the core. Magic Chef, Black+Decker, and Insignia are among the cheapest and easiest-to-find brands. GE, Whirlpool, and Sharp are essentially identical too (though they usually cost more, because the brand names were meaningful a couple decades ago). Pick whatever looks good to you, in whichever size fits your countertop and cookware.

Okay, not all microwaves are carbon copies of one another. Panasonic still makes some of its own ovens, and the models with inverters are really good, including the midsize Panasonic NN-SN67HS. In our testing, it heated faster and more evenly than every other microwave. We aren’t convinced that the Panasonics will last any longer than the mass of cheap Midea clones, and if you’re just making popcorn and reheating leftovers, you might not notice the superior performance anyway. The core microwave comes in most of the common sizes, from compact to extra-large, and in a few different finishes and control styles.

Everything we recommend

Our pick

Why you should trust us

Liam McCabe is a senior staff writer at Wirecutter, writing mainly about appliances like washing machines, dishwashers, and vacuums. Michael Sullivan is a Wirecutter senior staff writer who covers kitchen equipment, including toaster ovens, air fryers, and food processors. This guide builds on work by former Wirecutter staff member Ganda Suthivarakom and current senior staff writer Tim Heffernan, as well as freelancer Jessie Kissinger.

We spoke with various experts, including Bob Schiffmann, a 50-year veteran of the microwave industry, president of the International Microwave Power Institute (a membership industry group), and owner of R.F. Schiffmann Associates microwave consulting (which does work for microwave-adjacent companies, but does not represent any manufacturers directly and is not paid by them); Aaron Slepkov, a physics professor at Trent University, where he is the head of the Slepkov Biophotonics Lab; Sharon Franke, former director of the Kitchen Appliances and Technology Lab at Good Housekeeping (and a Wirecutter contributor); and representatives from a handful of microwave brands, including Breville, GE, Midea, and LG.

Good Housekeeping and Consumer Reports (Microwaves, Consumer Reports Buying Guide 2020, pp. 45–47) have trustworthy microwave reviews that we read while researching this guide. We also found dozens of helpful articles about microwave history, design, engineering, and more—see our list of sources for a few of the best.

Additionally, we pored over hundreds of customer reviews on retail sites and forums to get a sense of potential reliability problems and the features that owners tend to like and dislike; visited several big-box stores, including Home Depot, Lowe’s, and Bed Bath & Beyond, for some side-by-side microwave comparisons, before we picked our test group; searched through import records to figure out where most microwaves come from; and tested a few dozen models over the past few years, measuring their performance and even disassembling some of them to peek at the components.

Who should get this

A microwave is the quickest way to warm up leftovers and drinks, and it’s the method of choice for heating Lean Cuisine entrées and Hot Pockets, popping bags of Orville Redenbacher, and preparing other prepackaged, heavily engineered delights. Microwaves offer an easy way to steam vegetables and to melt chocolate or butter. Some people even know how to cook full meals from scratch in a microwave (a trend back in the ’80s, sort of like Instant Pot meals today).

Microwaves are cheap and versatile, so it’s no surprise that most people have one—specific estimates (PDF) can vary, but at least 90 percent of US households have one, and that’s not even counting all the workplaces that have microwaves.

We focused on countertop microwaves in this guide because, frankly, that’s the kind most people seem to be looking for when they Google “best microwaves.” We’ve also tested a few convection-microwave combo ovens, and found that they’re okay. We have a separate guide to over-the-range microwaves, if that’s what you’re after. We don’t cover built-in or drawer-style models. We would like to test some commercial-style microwaves, but haven’t gotten around to it yet. And we haven’t paid much attention to high-end countertop brands yet either.

If you’re short on counter or shelf space and are trying to figure out whether a microwave has a place in your kitchen (instead of a pressure cooker or a toaster oven, for example), it might help to think about it this way: Do you care more about a) making food quickly or b) making food tasty? If it’s the former, you’ll probably want a microwave. If it’s the latter, save the space for something else. (Or you could consider a convection microwave combo oven.)

There’s no good reason to replace an old microwave that still works. The newest models don’t work any better than old ones did. The technology has barely evolved in the past few decades, and if anything, the overall quality of the products has declined over time.

And yes, microwaves are as safe for your health, for your food, and for your home as any cooking appliance, if not safer.

Most microwaves come from the same factory

We found evidence that most countertop microwaves sold in the US are manufactured by just one company, Midea. We confirmed with Midea that it makes and sells Toshiba, Comfee, and Black+Decker ovens. We’re also confident that GE, Whirlpool, Sharp, Breville, Insignia, Magic Chef, Hamilton Beach, and others also sell microwaves that were originally built and probably designed in large part by Midea, though all parties that we contacted declined to comment. But here’s why we think Midea is the original manufacturer.

The first clue is that at a given capacity, there are usually at least four different models with the same wattage and dimensions. They have identical contours inside the oven and identical patterns in their ventilation grates, too. They sometimes have the same FCC ID (to be sold in the US, any piece of hardware that can create radio interference, like a magnetron, needs one). And some of them say plainly on the rear label that they’re manufactured by Midea.

The nearly-identical back housing on three 700-watt microwaves we tested.

Import records (which are public information) also confirm that Midea supplies microwaves to those brands.

a screenshot showing import records of microwaves.

We took the covers off of some microwaves (please don’t do this at home), and the similarities were even more striking: Many of them use the same magnetron (the key component in the oven that creates the actual microwaves), transformer, and capacitor. We usually found a Midea logo printed on the interior-facing side of the control panel, too.

Four microwaves we tested, with their housing removed.

Some brand representatives we spoke with said generally that they work with a “factory partner,” though none would confirm a relationship with Midea specifically.

None of this is to say that all microwaves are truly identical. Although the cheapest models are essentially generic ovens designed and assembled by Midea, some brands do play a part in their microwave designs.

A Breville representative told us that although the company uses some of its factory partner’s standard components (without explicitly confirming or denying that the partner is Midea), it is “actively involved in component design and fabrication,” a process that often includes visiting sub-suppliers and working directly with tool makers on various components. Breville also performs “additional quality control measures above and beyond the standards normally used by our factory partner.”

GE (again without confirming a relationship with Midea) told us that it’s also involved in some of the aspects of the design and does additional quality-control testing.

Even among microwaves that are intended to be identical, Schiffmann said there can still be functional differences from unit to unit. But for the most part, you can expect the Midea-made microwaves from all the brands we’ve listed, of a given size and power rating, to be very similar.

What about the other microwave suppliers? Galanz is purported to be the world’s other mega-microwave-manufacturer (and it’s based about a 30-minute drive away from Midea). Galanz may have a big foothold worldwide (40 percent as of 2013, according to the book Brand Breakout), but it seems to have a small share of the American market these days, mostly supplying bottom-tier brands like RCA. LG and Samsung each make their own microwaves. Panasonic makes its own mid-range and high-end countertop units, though its budget models seem to be made by Midea.

How we picked

Our goal is to recommend countertop microwaves in each of the most common sizes, and those with the most useful controls and cooking features, and preferably decent performance and reliability.

More than 100 microwaves are currently available, but because many of them are copies of one another, we narrowed our test group down to 21 models, with many different sizes and prices represented, and finished testing 18 of them before the coronavirus pandemic closed our office.


You should get whatever size you need, depending on your cookware and counter or shelf space.

We chose to focus first on midsize microwaves because they seem to be the best-sellers at most retailers. They have enough capacity (1.1 to 1.4 cubic feet) to easily fit a common 12-inch dinner plate or 9-inch square casserole dish with handles, but they have a small-enough footprint (about 2 square feet) that they’ll fit on most countertops. They usually claim to have around 1,000 watts of cooking power, which is what the cooking directions on packaged foods are calibrated for, so you shouldn’t have to fiddle with the cook times too much.

We also looked closely at several compact microwaves, which have 0.7 cubic feet of capacity. They have a physical footprint that’s about 25 percent smaller than that of a midsize model, but they still have enough room inside to fit most dinner plates. Compact microwaves are popular with people who have a small kitchen or live in a dorm room, and also with those who don’t want to spend much on a microwave. The downside is that they have only 700 watts of cooking power, and we’ve found that you’ll usually have to cook for about 30 percent longer to heat food as thoroughly as with a larger, stronger microwave.

Bigger models are widely available, too—as large as 2.2 cubic feet, with twice the physical footprint of a compact model and plenty of room for a 13-by-9-inch casserole dish with handles. Most people won’t need such a big machine, and as such, most brands don’t use their best-looking designs or coolest features for these extra-large monsters. But these microwaves typically use the same core components as midsize models and will perform similarly. (Larger models tend to have higher advertised wattage, though they often use the same power supply. We’re not certain why this is the case, but it could have something to do with the fungible nature of power ratings in microwaves.) We didn’t have a chance to test many of these models before the coronavirus pandemic shut down the office. But where it’s relevant, we’ve linked to some large and extra-large versions of some of our midsize picks.

Controls and design

Since most microwaves perform very similarly, we put greater importance on a microwave’s controls and design, particularly these four features:

Express buttons: We found a wide consensus that the most important, must-have feature on any microwave is an Add 30 Seconds button. For some people, it’s the only button they ever use. Nearly every microwave has one, but a few don’t, and we didn’t seriously consider those models. Buttons that automatically start longer cook cycles, usually from 1 through 6 minutes, are also common and well liked. We favored models that started their express cycles with a single press, rather than the ones that added to the timer and then waited for us to press start.

Closeup of the buttons on a GE microwave we tested.

Door handle: Handles are easier to clean than push buttons (which can get gunk stuck in the gaps around the edges), and they aren’t as susceptible to jamming or breaking over time, so we preferred handles when we could find them. (We still recommend some models that have the push-button design, for anyone who’d prefer that.)

Mute option: This was an essential feature in our main pick—some of us inveterate midnight snackers have faced the ire of housemates jolted awake by the piercing beeps at the end of a microwave cycle. Unfortunately, and surprisingly, this is an uncommon feature, and not all of our picks have it.

Sensor reheat: It’s far from a must-have feature, but sensor reheat is a handy shortcut that takes some guesswork out of reheating your leftovers. The sensor works by measuring humidity, so when your food starts steaming, the microwave knows it’s warm enough to eat. In our experience, sensor features usually overshoot the ideal eating temp, but by the time you grab a fork and sit down, it should be tolerable. A sensor cook option (for things like cooking vegetables, baking potatoes, or heating frozen entrées) is fairly common as well, and a few have sensor defrost settings, though we didn’t pay much attention to either option.

A child lock, turntable memory (which returns the tray to its original position so your mug handle is in the right spot), and eco mode (which turns off the display when it’s not in use) can all be handy, too. But they come standard on most microwaves now and didn’t affect our picks. Likewise, nearly all microwaves let you adjust the power level. Some of our readers have strong feelings about how timers and interior lights should work, but they weren’t a factor in our picks.

There’s nothing wrong with food-specific presets or defrost modes, and if you find them useful, that’s great. But we wouldn’t recommend picking a new microwave based on its presets. They don’t make the microwave do anything special—they’re just shortcuts for pre-programmed time and power-level settings, and those programs vary from model to model, so they might not work quite like you expect. You can always manually input your ideal cook times and power levels.

Cooking performance

Cooking performance did not play a big role when it came to making our picks. We found that any (non-defective) microwave was perfectly adequate for warming drinks and leftovers, cooking frozen meals, or popping bags of popcorn. The strongest, most consistent microwaves aren’t substantially better for those common tasks, and they don’t make microwaved food taste any better. So for most people, any run-of-the-mill microwave will heat stuff just fine. But we did pay more attention to performance for our upgrade pick, so that’s the better choice for people who want or need faster, more even heating and are willing to pay extra for it.

In our testing, we found that most models had a predictable heating pattern (hot spot in the center, cool inner ring, warm outer ring) that was imperfect but adequate for most of the common microwaving tasks. Some higher-priced models do heat more evenly across the turntable, which can be useful for cooking larger trays of food.

We also found that the heating speed basically tracks with the advertised wattage. In our two-minute test, all of the 1,000-watt models raised the temperature of a bowl of soup by a similar amount, and each of the compact, 700-watt models raised it noticeably less, while a 1,200-watt model raised it noticeably more. Your individual results may vary for a few different reasons, though most people will just learn to adjust their cook times to suit their particular oven.

A few brands sell models with a supposedly superior power-regulating mechanism called an inverter, which changes the way that power-level settings work. Basically, inverter microwaves can deliver continuous cooking when set to lower power levels, as opposed to regular transformer-powered microwaves, which cycle between periods of full power and zero power. Purveyors of inverter microwaves claim the technology helps preserve flavor and nutrients, and makes them better for delicate tasks like defrosting meat. After some tests and talking to experts, we’re not convinced inverters are very impactful in microwaves. An inverter model we tried did as poor a job of defrosting meat as any other microwave, and its food still tasted like it had been made in a microwave. It’s fine if a microwave has an inverter (our upgrade pick has one), but don’t expect it to change much.

Convection cooking is available in some pricier microwaves, but these combination ovens are quirky, niche appliances that most people don’t need. We’ll cover them later in this guide.

Reliability and longevity

We can’t promise that we’re recommending a reliable, long-lasting product. Sorry.

After looking at user reviews, reliability data (there’s not much of it), and class-action lawsuits, as well as talking with some experts, we’ve concluded that you can’t count on any countertop microwave to last for more than a handful of years before a crucial part breaks and it becomes unusable. One paper claims that the average lifespan of a microwave has shrunk from 10 or 15 years in the ’90s down to six to eight years today. It’s not uncommon for them to break down even sooner. “The manufacturing has gotten really crappy,” said Schiffmann, the microwave expert who has worked in the industry for 50 years. (Though, for what it’s worth, professor Aaron Slepkov told us that his students do “terrible things” to microwaves in their plasma experiments, but have found that they’re harder to destroy than you might think.)

Since one company (Midea) assembles most microwaves, all of the brands it supplies are likely to be similarly reliable. If you have a bad experience with a Sharp, you’re just as likely to have a bad experience with a Toshiba, certain GE and Panasonic models, and loads of others.

There’s no sign that the microwaves from other manufacturers are any better. The average user ratings for Panasonic and LG ovens are the same or even a bit lower than those for Midea-made models. Galanz and Samsung models have lower ratings and more complaints about reliability than the others.

Pricier models like a Breville or GE Profile could be more durable; we need to do more research on this. But what we know so far makes us pretty skeptical that spending more on a microwave today will ever turn out to be a better long-term value. Schiffmann said that even if you spend hundreds on an oven, “it’s not a guarantee it’ll be all that much better” than the cheap, run-of-the-mill models. The higher-end ovens do have higher-quality mechanical parts, like the door latch and turntable motor, and probably stricter quality control, so fewer duds may make it out of the factory. But it’s unclear whether the electronic components and craftsmanship at the core of the microwave—power supply, wiring, magnetron—are any different than those of the cheap models, or subject to the higher-quality standards.

On top of all that, most brands are hit-or-miss when it comes to honoring their warranties. Repairs are possible, but it’s usually cheaper to just buy a new low-end oven.

How we tested

We ran a handful of cooking tests, from heating trays of frozen mac and cheese to defrosting store-bought burger patties, but there were three tests that gave us the clearest takeaways.

The most telling was the marshmallow heat map, a test we’ve used for years. It gives us a great sense of the hot spots you’ll get on a mostly flat plate. We cut a piece of parchment paper to the size of each turntable, covered it with mini marshmallows, and heated it for two minutes on high. Most models performed similarly on this test, with noticeable but not dramatic hot and cool spots, though there were some outliers on both sides.

Our mini marshmallow test results for four different microwave turntables arranged on baking sheets.

We did another heating test to get a sense of the hot spots you might find with a taller food container, or a big pile of food. We filled 1-quart takeout soup containers with instant mashed potatoes, chilled them to refrigerator temperature (about 37 °F), heated one container in each microwave for 2 minutes, then took 12 temperature readings with an instant-read thermometer throughout the container. We learned that, basically, any microwave will struggle to consistently heat a big pile of food, with some spots getting much hotter than others—no microwave is well suited to this task, not even the ones with consistent coverage across a flat plate of food.

Finally, we nuked a can of vegetable soup in a ceramic bowl for two minutes and then checked the temperature to get a sense of the microwave’s heating speed. Most models of a given power level performed similarly to one another. We did see some differences from model to model. In retrospect, we could’ve just used water (that’s the industry-standard method for measuring power, it turns out).

Beyond the cooking performance, we also made notes on controls, build quality, and general usability.

Our picks: Toshiba EM131A5C and ML2-EM25PAE

Our runner-up pick for best microwave, the Toshiba EM131A5C-BS.

Of all the midsize microwaves built by Midea around the same core components, the Toshiba EM131A5C is our favorite.

It has a handful of useful features that are uncommon in this popular size and price range. There’s the door handle (instead of a button), which is a little easier to open and to clean. The Toshiba EM131A5C also has a mute option to shut off the beeping whenever you press a button, or when the cycle ends. And the brushed stainless (or black stainless) finish is a better match for modern kitchen appliances than the run-of-the-mill glossy black finish that you’ll find on most inexpensive microwaves. Some people also appreciate that the interior light turns on when you open the door.

The EM131A5C also has the other popular features you’ll find on most microwaves, including the all-important Add 30 Seconds button, and one-touch express controls from 1 to 6 minutes. The microwave’s lock function prevents kids from accidentally operating the machine (you simply hold the stop/cancel button for 3 seconds to lock or unlock the door). And you can use the sensor reheat function to take some of the guesswork out of warming up leftovers.

Most of the typical preset programs are here as well, though the shortcut buttons bring up cryptic sub-commands that aren’t very self-explanatory. You’ve also got your regular one-through-10 power level adjustment, time cook, kitchen timer (though it won’t run concurrently with a cooking program), and so on. The EM131A5C also has a programmable multistage cooking function and a memory function, though we don’t think most people use these very often, if at all.

In our testing, the EM131A5C was a thoroughly average performer, with a predictable pattern of hot spots and heating power. Though its advertised capacity is a little bit larger than that of some competing models, it has the same 12.4-inch turntable, which is plenty of room for a standard dinner plate or 9-inch square baking dish.

The Toshiba microwave with a 9-inch square baking dish inside of it.

The Toshiba EM131A5C is large enough to fit a 9-inch square casserole dish. Photo: Michael Hession

A person holding the parchment paper heat map test result for the 1.2 cu ft Toshiba microwave up to a window. The paper is fairly evenly colored, with some darker parts near the center indicating higher heat.

The heat map from the 900-watt Toshiba EM925A5A. Photo: Michael Hession

The Toshiba is covered by a one-year warranty, and the claims process is easier than what most manufacturers offer. Rather than asking you to ship a defective microwave to a repair center, which can cost almost as much as a new microwave, Toshiba will instead issue you a refund check in four to eight weeks, according to a representative we spoke to. You’ll need to provide your original receipt, cut the power cord on the oven, and send a photo of the severed cord and the model number label in order to receive the refund. Contact Toshiba’s customer support center for more information.

For what it’s worth, if you know what you’re doing and can take the appropriate safety precautions to disassemble and work on a microwave, it’s actually quite easy to find spare parts for the Toshiba microwave at Embark. (We’re not going to link to it, because of how hazardous it is to work on these things.)

We also like the Toshiba ML2-EM25PAE (or whichever model of the 900-watt, 0.9-cubic-foot Toshiba is available). It shares most of the same traits as the slightly larger model, but it has slightly less power, no sensor, and a tighter oven cavity that might struggle to fit the largest dinner plates. This smaller model was actually the main pick in this guide for a while, and we changed the order only because more people seem to want a slightly bigger microwave than this one.

Flaws not dealbreakers

We’ve read a few dozen anecdotal reviews about problems with Toshiba microwaves, ranging from minor stuff like the interior light flickering to big stuff like complete breakdowns or oven fires (though, based on our research, microwave fires are mostly the result of user error, and typically don’t have much to do with the oven itself). It sucks when a microwave doesn’t last, but we really don’t think you have any better option.

As we’ve covered, one manufacturer makes most microwaves (including the pricier ones from several more prestigious brands). We took the cover off the Toshiba to compare it to Black+Decker, Insignia, and Panasonic models of a similar size, and what do you know—they all used the same magnetrons and power supplies, and all had a Midea logo printed on the back of their control panels. Any problems you might have with this Toshiba are the same problems you’d have with nearly any other microwave in this size, and you shouldn’t count on any of them to be more reliable.

If you have a problem under warranty, the claims process may or may not go smoothly. We’ve heard complaints about Toshiba’s voice mailbox being full when people have called to make claims, or that the reps have tried to give them the runaround without issuing a refund. But that’s typical for the industry these days, based on our experience. (Even if you think you know of an appliance brand that has consistently great customer service, we’ve probably heard at least a few bad stories about it.)

Runners-up: Black+Decker, Magic Chef, Insignia

A Black+Decker microwave we recommend.

Microwaves sold by Black+Decker, Magic Chef, and Insignia are all manufactured by Midea, the same company that builds ovens for bigger-name, higher-priced brands like Toshiba, GE, Sharp, and Whirlpool. If our picks are sold out, or you find one of these for a lower price (which is common), or you need a microwave in a different size than the ones we’ve recommended elsewhere in this guide, shop around among these brands to find whatever is cheapest at the moment, in whichever size you need.

Here’s a table of some simple, affordable, Midea-made models in several popular sizes:

These ovens cost less mostly because they leave out some nice-to-have but nonessential features. They don’t have sensor-reheat modes. They tend to have plain, glossy-black finishes (sometimes with a strip of stainless trim). The interior light will turn on while you’re cooking, but maybe not when you’re loading and unloading the oven. Most have door-release buttons instead of handles. However, they still have the all-important express controls and an Add 30 Seconds button.

Apart from that, we think it’s safe to say that the performance and reliability will be essentially the same for any of these Midea-made microwaves at a given size. When we disassembled a handful of them, we found that these cheaper ones used the same core components as the slightly pricier models of a similar capacity. In our performance tests, the cheap brands didn’t have exactly the same results as the Toshiba’s, but they were close, and almost identical among themselves. The hot-spot pattern was a bit different, because the cavities aren’t quite the same shape, and the microwaves bounce around in a different pattern. But hardly anyone will notice a difference in day-to-day use. And the heating speed is unchanged.

Upgrade pick: Panasonic Inverter Microwaves

A Panasonic Inverter microwave.

If you want a microwave that heats faster and more evenly than the mass of generic Midea-made clones, without a huge added cost, consider one of Panasonic’s inverter microwaves.

In our testing, the midsize Panasonic NN-SN67HS browned our marshmallow heat map consistently across the turntable, without the obvious hot spots that we saw with nearly every other microwave. It also got a tray of frozen mac and cheese about 10 degrees hotter than other microwaves during the normal cooking time. The “official” results from our soup-heating test were unclear; the liquid got only slightly hotter overall than competing models made it, but the bowl itself became unbearably hot, suggesting that the Panasonic had more power than other models (and that we should use a different bowl next time).

Panasonic inverter models lack some of the express controls we like to see: There’s a Quick 30 button, and More or Less buttons you can push while it’s running to adjust the time by 10 seconds, but apart from those you’ll need to enter a specific time and then press start. They’re also on the loud side, with a whooshy mid-range tone that can drown out conversations (which isn’t a problem with most microwaves).

A melted marshmallow heat-map from the Panasonic inverter microwave we tested.

It’s hard to tell whether these mid-range Panasonics are more or less reliable than Midea-made models. The average owner ratings at Amazon for the older SN686S model tend to be a little bit lower, though Amazon ratings are hard to trust these days. Many of the one-star reviews are related to poor packaging rather than performance or reliability, though there are not-infrequent complaints about the H98 error, which means the power supply or magnetron has died. If you need a repair under warranty, you’ll likely have to pay to ship the oven to Panasonic’s repair center, which can be expensive.

The defining feature on these Panasonic microwaves is supposed to be the inverter, which supposedly helps it work better for “delicate” tasks like defrosting, cooking vegetables, or even braising meats. But we couldn’t find evidence that it’s really effective. When we tried the auto-defrost feature, which allegedly relies on the inverter to adjust the power levels to some degree, it still cooked the edges of our meat and left a cold spot in the center, like any other run-of-the-mill microwave. Even if the inverter does help with some tasks, it doesn’t mask the fact that food has that soggy, cooked-in-a-microwave texture. “I’ve never found that [an inverter] necessarily means the oven performs better,” said Sharon Franke, who tested dozens of microwaves during the decades she worked at Good Housekeeping.

Panasonic makes its mid-range inverter microwaves in several sizes and finishes, with some variation in the control panels. We confirmed with a Panasonic representative that the midsize and larger models all use the same core components—the oven cavity is just a different size. We tested the extra-large NN-SN966S and found a few modest performance differences, which is not a surprise since the geometry is different. But otherwise, they’re very similar microwaves, down to the control scheme.

Panasonic also makes some higher-end inverter models with the Cyclonic Wave feature (video), which is aimed at evenly distributing the microwaves throughout the interior. We haven’t tested this feature, but we think the mid-range models already do well in this respect.

Cheaper Panasonic models, without the inverter, are most likely manufactured by Midea. There are plenty of shipping records indicating that Midea supplies microwaves and microwave parts to Panasonic of America, and when we disassembled a lower-end Panasonic, it was made from the same core components as other models we know are made by Midea.

What about a super-cheap compact microwave?

If you’re looking for a compact (0.7 cubic feet or smaller) microwave, or if you just want the most inexpensive option, you can pick from about a dozen Midea-made models that are all the same size and wattage. However, this style of oven may pose a small but concerning fire risk that you should know about before you decide to buy one.

Through most of 2020 we recommended the 0.7 cubic foot, 700-watt AmazonBasics Microwave for people who wanted a very cheap, small oven. Its performance was indistinguishable from the other Midea-made models at this size that we tried (including a Black+Decker model). But the Amazon stands out a bit from the pack of clones because it’s usually one of the cheapest microwaves anywhere, it’s almost always in stock, and it’s one of the few compact models with a door handle instead of a push button.

However, in September 2020, reporting by CNN uncovered a possible design flaw in the AmazonBasics that may lead it to catch fire. CNN found that “more than 150 reviews about the AmazonBasics microwave describe safety concerns including flames and smoke.” (Given that the AmazonBasics is basically identical to almost every other compact microwave available today, it’s probably wise to assume that any 700-watt machine manufactured by Midea could also have this issue—there just aren’t nearly as many reviews for other brands’ small ovens.)

The Amazon Basics Microwave.

As we’ve written, most microwave fires are the result of overcooked food, and we suspect that’s at the root of most incidents in these Amazon reviews, too. For example, several reviews mention bags of popcorn catching on fire, probably because part of the packaging got stuck near the wave emitter (we’ve seen this ourselves a few times).

However, a video in the CNN article clearly shows the AmazonBasics sparking outside of the oven cavity, nowhere near the food, and roughly where the magnetron sits inside the machine. CNN hired a lab to examine one of those sparking microwaves, and the testing found that “the design of the panel covering the heating device inside the microwave could … allow debris such as food or grease to collect behind it and possibly ignite.” We asked microwave expert Bob Schiffmann for a second opinion on this potential design flaw. Although he thinks the “grease/food explanation is probably incorrect,” he does “believe there is a significant design flaw” in the AmazonBasics model (he hasn’t done any tests of his own, however).

All that said, we don’t actually know the scale of this problem. Even if there are just a few dozen magnetron-adjacent fires in the AmazonBasics Microwave (and similar models) per year, that’s a lot more than we hear about with larger countertop models. But it still doesn’t seem very common. The oven hasn’t been recalled, we can’t find records of complaints about this model in the Consumer Product Safety Commission’s database, and National Fire Prevention Association statistics don’t reflect a jump in house fires caused by microwaves in the years since the AmazonBasics model was first sold.

If you do decide to buy the AmazonBasics Microwave, here’s what you should know (much of it also applies to other compact, 700-watt machines):

As a 700-watt oven, the AmazonBasics takes longer to heat food than larger models with 1,000 watts or more. Although you can fit a standard dinner plate or a small square casserole pan in it, some vessels are just too big. But that’s no different from any other compact microwave.

Three sheets of melted marshmallows cooked in three microwaves we tested.

Voice commands are supposed to be the AmazonBasics’s special feature. If you have a compatible Alexa smart speaker, you can connect the microwave to Wi-Fi, link it to your Amazon account, and control certain features like the cook time, power level, or presets using voice commands. It can also automatically reorder popcorn to arrive at your home, based on your order history and how many times you’ve asked it to use the popcorn setting. If you’re comfortable with smart-home stuff, it’s neat and occasionally handy to be able to tell your microwave to run for three minutes without getting your greasy hands all over the control panel. (Alexa still can’t open the door or load your dinner plate, though.) If you’re skeptical about smart-home stuff (maybe you don’t like that Alexa is always listening, or that one of Amazon’s subsidiaries has a spotty track record on security and privacy issues), you can just use it as a regular dumb microwave, without ever connecting it to Wi-Fi.

Wirecutter smart-home editor Grant Clauser has owned an AmazonBasics Microwave for a few years, and he says it’s “fine” and that he uses the voice commands sometimes, though he finds the functionality pretty limited. The numbers on his control pad are beginning to wear off—so maybe Amazon really does want you to use the voice commands.

Countertop competition

LG manufactures its own microwaves, and its NeoChef series looks promising, with strong ratings from Consumer Reports as well as from owners, and specs that are similar to those of the Panasonic inverter models that we like. We’d intended to test the NeoChef LMC1575ST, but the unit that LG agreed to loan us was apparently lost in shipping, and the coronavirus pandemic closed our office before we could buy a replacement. The only obvious downside is that these NeoChef models aren’t as widely available as other microwaves, and LG itself suggested that its smaller models (compact and midsize) can be hard to find.

Samsung makes its own microwaves, too. The company’s general approach to appliance design is present in its microwaves: Make it sparkle on the showroom floor, load it with features that seem useful (all but its very cheapest model have some kind of grill or convection feature), and don’t worry too much about making it reliable (the owner ratings for Samsung’s microwaves are well below the average for the category). We tested the Samsung MG11H2020CT, whose “grill” feature (basically an exposed ceramic heating element at the top of the cavity) is not nearly as effective as a toaster oven. The microwave itself was average in our tests.

Breville makes high-end microwaves with big control panels, knurled dials, soft-close doors, and an extensive list of pre-programmed settings. There’s no doubt that these have several higher-quality parts than the other ovens we’ve covered. If you like the aesthetics and control scheme, and you have some extra money, we’re not going to try to talk you out of it. The soft-close door is especially luxurious. However, in our testing, we found that the performance was just run of the mill. The Smooth Wave slightly outperformed an average microwave, though it wasn’t as fast or consistent as the Panasonic NN-SN67HS, which is usually at least $170 cheaper. (We also tested the Combi Wave convection microwave, which we discuss below.) We’re pretty sure that these are Midea-made microwaves, and we aren’t sure one way or the other whether the electronics are actually more durable than those of the cheaper models.

Most of the affordable microwaves sold by GE are most likely made by Midea. The popular 1.4-cubic-foot GE JES1460 has a flimsier door than anything else we’ve tested. But otherwise, all the mainline models seem largely identical to units from less-prestigious brands. They’re fine if you can get them on sale—the JES1072 even used to be a budget pick in this guide (we removed it due to a few reports of sparking incidents, though based on what we know now, it was almost certainly not a GE-specific problem, and is arguably normal microwave behavior).

We did notice that at least a few GE models recommend only a few inches of clearance on all sides of the microwave, whereas cheaper brands recommend 8 to 12 inches behind and above the oven to prevent overheating. We’re not sure whether the oven design is different (they sure didn’t look like it when we disassembled them), or if GE is just comfortable being a little looser with the guidelines. Also, we’re not sure whether higher-end GE Profile models (which cost $350 and up) are substantially different from the cheaper models—they could be, but we weren’t able to investigate this in this round of testing, and GE did not reply to an email asking for clarification.

Whirlpool countertop microwaves are also almost certainly made by Midea, and they are fine if you see them on sale. There’s nothing special about any of them—except, that is, the 0.5-cubic-foot Whirlpool WMC20005YW mini-microwave. It’s bigger in person than it looks in pictures, but its rounded back allows it to be placed in a corner, with the door and controls still facing straight out. This is as small as microwaves get.

Sharp is yet another made-by-Midea brand these days, and none of its current models are noteworthy; they’re fine on sale.

Hamilton Beach, Oster, and Danby microwaves all appear to be made-by-Midea microwaves that are fine if you find them for a low-enough price.

Farberware is a bit of a wildcard—we haven’t tested any of its microwaves, we couldn’t find any records of shipments to Farberware in import records, and some of the reviews for its microwaves cite different problems (noise, mostly) than we’re used to hearing about regarding Midea models. We don’t know exactly how they compare to the legion of other cheap, decent microwaves out there.

Finally, at the bottom of the barrel, you’ve got your microwaves made by Galanz, the other giant microwave manufacturer in China’s Guangdong province. These dirt-cheap models bear the lowest-tier brand names, like RCA and Avanti. We tested an RCA RMW733 model, and even though its lack of an Add 30 Seconds button was grounds for dismissal on its own, we also found that it had a severe hot spot in the center of the turntable and cold spots everywhere else. You might save $15 with one of these microwaves, but we don’t think it’s worth it.

What about an over-the-range microwave?

An over-the-range microwave is a microwave and a range hood combined into one appliance, installed over your stove. We cover OTR microwaves more thoroughly in another guide. But below we offer a few brief notes.

Our OTR pick is the GE JVM6175 because it has most of the control features we like to see, it heats evenly, and the installation is a little easier than that of other models we’ve hooked up. We also like the Whirlpool WMH31017HS, which is missing some of the express controls that owners tend to appreciate, but it has a quieter ventilation fan.

If you’re trying to decide whether you should install an over-the-range microwave, or get some other type of microwave plus a range hood, you can pick whichever option makes more sense for your space. But if you often use most of your stove-top burners, you’ll run into two problems with an OTR microwave: First, the microwave handle can get uncomfortably hot to the touch from all the heat radiating upward. Second, the modest vent fan in the OTR microwave (usually 300 to 400 cubic feet per minute) may not be able to keep up with the volume of polluted air coming off of a busy stovetop, especially if you’re cooking at high heat—you’ll want a stronger range hood to keep your kitchen smoke-free.

Are convection microwaves worth it?

If you’re short on counter space, a convection microwave combo oven can replace a microwave and a toaster oven—sort of. The microwave part works great, but these combos have fewer heating elements than even basic toaster ovens do, so packaged foods and baked goods don’t turn out as crisp and delicious, and these combos can’t make decent toast at all. For the same price and counter space as a combo oven and a toaster, you can get a good compact microwave and a great compact toaster oven. So for most people, a convection microwave isn’t a slam-dunk option.

The Amazon Smart Oven.

If you’ve done your research and decided that a countertop convection microwave really is your best option, the Amazon Smart Oven is our favorite.

We tried three different models (all almost certainly made by Midea) by running our typical microwave tests, and we also made some frozen french fries and roasted a whole chicken in each. All were similarly okay at cooking french fries, and the microwave performance was basically the same. But there were some important differences.

The Amazon Smart Oven is the only one we tested that comes with a probe thermometer, which is really useful if you’re cooking meat because you can set the oven to stop once the meat reaches a certain temperature. We used the probe when we cooked a chicken, and the Amazon was the only oven that didn’t wildly overcook the breast. The skin turned out golden and crispy, and the meat was juicy and tender.

It’s also the only combo model that works with voice commands, via Alexa (you’ll need a separate smart speaker to operate it). The Smart Oven has many different presets and cooking programs that you’ll want to use, but it has a crappy standard microwave control panel, so the voice commands can come in handy, because otherwise you have to look up all the programs and sub-menus in the manual. But in our testing, it didn’t always accept our commands, even if we recited them out of the instruction manual.

We also tested the Toshiba EC042A5C, which is clearly built from many of the same components as the Amazon Smart Oven. It has neither a probe (though it does let you enter a specific weight for chicken) nor voice commands. And the instruction manual provides almost no guidance on what settings to use to make lots of common foods—that’s sorely missed, because most recipes don’t include instructions for convection cooking, so you’ll be left guessing, Googling, or trying to make sense of the cryptic preset sub-menus.

Breville also sent us its top-of-the-line Combi Wave oven. It’s a lot like the Smooth Wave, with the option for convection cooking. It’s the only model we tested that sometimes runs actual “combination” programs that switch back and forth between microwave and convection cooking, to speed up cook times without leaving the limp, rubbery texture of most nuked foods. But we found that a few programs overcooked our food. This model burned a bag of Pop Secret and dried out the breast on a whole chicken. You can’t manually program those modes, so you’re at the mercy of the presets. We expected better cooking performance from such an expensive oven.

A bunch of new convection microwaves (sometimes called air fryers, which is the same thing) from Panasonic, Galanz, and others have been released since we last tested a batch in early 2020, along with a handful of related models that have a grilling or broiling feature (like a regular toaster oven, but with fewer heating elements), a lot like a small Samsung that we’d previously tested and found to be pretty unremarkable. There are more of these models than there used to be, though we’re not sure how popular they are yet. It is unlikely that we’ll test any of these in 2021, unless there’s some kind of hit, breakout product.

What about built-in microwaves? Or microwave drawers?

We haven’t spent much time looking into microwaves that can be installed in a wall or cabinet, including drawer-style microwaves. We’ll try to revisit this later.

What to look forward to

The microwave oven is a mature technology that hasn’t changed much (or at least not for the better) in a few decades, and apart from some brands fiddling with convection or grilling features, we don’t anticipate major changes anytime soon.

Microwave safety, care, and maintenance

Every year we hear from a few of our readers who tell us that the microwave they bought based on our advice caught fire for an unexplained reason. We looked into it, and the gist of it is that microwaves are a lot less likely to catch fire than other cooking appliances—and when they do, it’s usually because something got overcooked, or there was something in the microwave that shouldn’t have been there.

If you have lingering suspicions about microwave radiation, there’s really nothing to worry about—it’s safe for your family and your food. Schiffmann explained that microwaves are exceptionally weak compared with visible light (which is a form of radiation itself). The doors are designed so that microwaves rarely ever leak, and even when they do, the total energy that could escape over the lifetime of your oven is equivalent to a “single Christmas tree light,” Schiffmann said. The personal safety risks are minute (but beware of superheated liquids), and microwaving won’t destroy the nutrients in your food to any greater degree than other types of cooking, either.

If you’re planning to keep your microwave on a shelf or in a cabinet cutout, check the installation guidelines first. Some models recommend leaving huge gaps—8 to 12 inches—around the rear and top of the machine.

The simplest way to save your microwave from an early death is to avoid slamming the door. That’s because microwaves have a dual kill switch in the latch to make it impossible for the microwave to turn on if the door is open or even compromised. That’s a good thing—but it means that the latch is a vulnerable point of failure. Do yourself a favor and be gentle with it.

Don’t run your microwave empty. Without food to absorb the microwaves, some of them will travel back up the waveguide to the magnetron and start to overheat it—though magnetrons generally have a thermal cutoff switch that kills the power when it gets too hot.

The simplest way to save your microwave from an early death is to avoid slamming the door.

Frequently used microwaves need to be cleaned at least once a week, because any food remnants stuck to the walls can get overheated and burn. A simple trick we’ve used is to nuke a bowl of water for a few minutes on high: The steam will loosen most gunk, and you can wipe it out with just a plain paper towel or a sponge.

Microwaves with reheating sensors need to be able to detect the steam coming off your food, so if you cover your food, it needs to be with something porous. It’s fine to use a paper towel or loose plastic wrap.

If your microwave is broken, it’s dangerous to try to repair it yourself unless you have the proper equipment and know-how. The capacitor inside the microwave retains a high-voltage charge that can kill you if you touch it, even if it has been unplugged for several hours. The magnetron has a ceramic ring on it that often contains beryllium, which can cause a terrible illness if it cracks and you inhale any of the dust (though it’d be hard to make this mistake accidentally). Since repair can be a hazardous task, most brands will not send you parts under warranty to fix a microwave yourself, even if it’s just the light bulb.

If your microwave bites the dust, first check with your local trash-disposal company to see whether it will take it. If it won’t, look for a recycling center near you. (Just be sure to call in advance to confirm it accepts microwaves.)

Why your microwave might not be heating as expected

Your new microwave might not work exactly like your old one. It could heat faster or slower than you expect, or the presets might be programmed differently. This can happen even if you stick with the same brand—or even the same model—that you’re replacing. As frustrating as that may be, it’s easier to adjust to your new machine than to find a clone of the old one.

One explanation for why this happens is that the advertised wattage might be different. If you replace a 1,000-watt model with a 700-watt model, you should expect the new one to take longer to heat things—it just doesn’t have as much cooking power, and you’ll need to increase the cooking times.

Individual units of the same microwave model might differ in measurable wattage by as much as 40 percent.

But there can be big differences even among microwaves with the same advertised wattage, according to Schiffmann. He explained that there’s no mandatory, industry-standard test to measure microwave power, so the advertised wattage might be based on different measurements from brand to brand. A 1,000-watt GE and a 1,000-watt Toshiba may not be designed to be equally powerful. The IEC, an independent standards commission, does have a test methodology to determine wattage, but brands are not required to follow it. (The Department of Energy repealed the mandate in 2010, writing that (PDF) the “procedure did not produce representative and repeatable test results.”)

On top of that, individual units of the same microwave model might differ in measurable wattage by as much as 40 percent, Schiffmann found in his own testing. That 1,000-watt Toshiba could be as wimpy as 800 watts or as strong as 1,200 watts, based on Toshiba’s own testing standard. In theory, a 700-watt microwave on the weaker end of that variance could take twice as long to heat food as an 1,100-watt microwave on the stronger end. It’s a side effect of cost-cutting, Schiffmann said, allowing wide manufacturing tolerances and limited quality-control performance testing (which you’d find in any busy factory).

All that said, in the real world, this means you might need to adjust the cook time by a few seconds. In our limited testing, we noticed some small power differences between models that were identical or largely identical, but it didn’t make a huge difference over the course of 2 minutes heating a bowl of soup or 5 minutes heating a tray of frozen mac and cheese. If your microwave is really struggling to heat much of anything from Day One, you probably have a defective model.

Frequently asked questions

Which microwave brand is most reliable?

The short answer: none of them. We found that most countertop microwaves are made by the same manufacturer, from mostly the same parts. And based on what we know from owner reviews, reliability data, class action lawsuits, and chats with experts, nothing seems to stand out as particularly reliable. A definite instance of “they don’t make ’em like they used to.”

What is the safest microwave oven?

Most countertop microwaves are variations of the same cheap, decent machine, so they all offer the same level of safety and are actually considerably safer than many other cooking appliances. As long as you buy a model that is UL certified (that includes all of them at this writing, as far as we know), it should be as safe as you can reasonably expect.

When should I replace my microwave?

You need to replace your microwave only if it stops working entirely or starts taking so long to cook that it’s inconvenient (microwaves gradually lose their heating power over time). It could also be time to move on if your microwave starts to look or smell gross and a thorough wipe-down doesn’t help. Otherwise, there’s no need to upgrade. By the way, sparks are not a sign of a malfunctioning microwave.


  1. Sharon Franke, former director of the Kitchen Appliances and Technology Lab at Good Housekeeping, phone interview, April 20, 2018

  2. Bob Schiffmann, president of International Microwave Power Institute and owner of R.F. Schiffmann Associates, Inc., phone interview, March 9, 2020

  3. Aaron Slepkov, associate professor, department of physics and astronomy, and head of Slepkov Biophotonics Lab group at Trent University, video interview, April 22, 2020

  4. Mark Fischetti, Dinner and a Show—Working Knowledge on Microwave Ovens, Scientific American, November 1, 2008

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