Ethos, pathos logos wiki

Ethos, pathos logos wiki DEFAULT


For the film, see Pathos (film). For the manga, see Pathos (manga).

Not to be confused with Pothos or Bathos.

Pathos (, ; plural: pathea or pathê; Greek: πάθος, for "suffering" or "experience" or "something that one undergoes," or "something that happens to one".[1] In medicine it refers to a "failing," "illness", or "complaint".[2] In Stoicism it refers to "complaints of the soul".[3] In its adjectival form: pathetic from παθητικός) appeals to the emotions of the audience and elicits feelings that already reside in them.[4] Pathos is a communication technique used most often in rhetoric (in which it is considered one of the three modes of persuasion, alongside ethos and logos), as well as in literature, film and other narrative art.

Emotional appeal can be accomplished in many ways, such as the following:

Pathos tends to use "loaded" words that will get some sort of reaction. Examples could include "victim," in a number of different contexts. In certain situations, pathos may be described as a "guilt trip" based on the speaker trying to make someone in the audience or the entire audience feel guilty about something. An example would be "Well, you don't have to visit me, but I just really miss you and haven't seen you in so long."


See also: Stoic passions

In Stoicismpathos refers to "complaints of the soul". Succumbing to pathos is an internal event (i.e., in one's soul) that consists in an erroneous response to impressions external to it. This view of pathos, and the accompanying view that all pathos is to be extirpated (in order to achieve the state of apatheia), are related by Stoics to a specific picture of the nature of the soul, of psychological functioning, and of human action. A key feature of that picture is that succumbing to pathos is an error of reason - an intellectual mistake.[5]

Epicureanism interpreted and placed pathos in much more colloquial means and situations, placing it in pleasure, and studying it in almost every facet in regards to pleasure, analyzing emotional specificity that an individual may feel or may need to undergo to appreciate said pathos.[6]


Aristotle’s text on pathos[edit]

In Rhetoric, Aristotle identifies three artistic modes of persuasion, one of which is "awakening emotion (pathos) in the audience so as to induce them to make the judgment desired."[7] In the first chapter, he includes the way in which "men change their opinion in regard to their judgment. As such, emotions have specific causes and effects" (Book 2.1.2–3).[8] Aristotle identifies pathos as one of the three essential modes of proof by his statement that "to understand the emotions—that is, to name them and describe them, to know their causes and the way in which they are excited (1356a24–1356a25).[9] Aristotle posits that, alongside pathos, the speaker must also deploy good ethos in order to establish credibility (Book 2.1.5–9). [8]

Aristotle details what individual emotions are useful to a speaker (Book 2.2.27).[10] In doing so, Aristotle focused on whom, toward whom, and why, stating that "[i]t is not enough to know one or even two of these points; unless we know all three, we shall be unable to arouse anger in anyone. The same is true of the other emotions." He also arranges the emotions with one another so that they may counteract one another. For example, one would pair sadness with happiness (Book 2.1.9).[8]

With this understanding, Aristotle argues for the rhetor to understand the entire situation of goals and audiences to decide which specific emotion the speaker would exhibit or call upon in order to persuade the audience. Aristotle's theory of pathos has three main foci: the frame of mind the audience is in, the variation of emotion between people, and the influence the rhetor has on the emotions of the audience. Aristotle classifies the third of this trio as the ultimate goal of pathos.[11] Similarly, Aristotle outlines the individual importance of persuasive emotions, as well as the combined effectiveness of these emotions on the audience. Antoine Braet did a re-examination of Aristotle's text and in this he examined the speaker's goal of the effect on the audience. Braet explains there are three perspectives of every emotion that a speaker is trying to arouse from the audience: the audience's condition, who the audience is feeling these emotions for, and the motive.[12] Moreover, Aristotle pointedly discusses pleasure and pain in relation to the reactions these two emotions cause in an audience member.[11] According to Aristotle, emotions vary from person to person. Therefore, he stresses the importance of understanding specific social situations in order to successfully utilize pathos as a mode of persuasion.[11]

Aristotle identifies the introduction and the conclusion as the two most important places for an emotional appeal in any persuasive argument.[13]

Alternative views on pathos[edit]

Scholars have discussed the different interpretations of Aristotle's views of rhetoric and his philosophy. Some believe that Aristotle may not have even been the inventor of his famous persuasion methods. In the second chapter of Rhetoric, Aristotle's view on pathos changes from the use in discourse to the understanding of emotions and their effects. William Fortenbaugh pointed out that for the SophistGorgias, "Being overcome with emotion is analogous to rape."[14] Aristotle opposed this view and created a systematic approach to pathos. Fortenbaugh argues that Aristotle's systematic approach to emotional appeals "depends upon correctly understanding the nature of individual emotions, upon knowing the conditions favorable to, the objects of, and the grounds for individual emotions".[15] Modern philosophers were typically more skeptical of the use of emotions in communication, with political theorists such as John Locke hoping to extract emotion from reasoned communication entirely. George Campbell presents another view unlike the common systematic approach of Aristotle. Campbell explored whether appeals to emotion or passions would be "an unfair method of persuasion," identifying seven circumstances to judge emotions: probability, plausibility, importance, proximity in time, connection of place, relations to the persons concerned, and interest in the consequences.[16]

The 84 BC Rhetorica ad Herennium book of an unknown author theorizes that the conclusion is the most important place in a persuasive argument to consider emotions such as mercy or hatred, depending on the nature of the persuasion.[17] The "appeal to pity", as it is classified in Rhetorica ad Herennium, is a means to conclude by reiterating the major premise of the work and tying while incorporating an emotional sentiment. The author suggests ways in which to appeal to the pity of the audience: "We shall stir pity in our hearers by recalling vicissitudes of future; by comparing the prosperity we once enjoyed with our present adversity; by entreating those whose pity we seek to win, and by submitting ourselves to their mercy."[17] Additionally, the text impresses the importance of invoking kindness, humanity and sympathy upon the hearer. Finally, the author suggests that the appeal to pity be brief for "nothing dries more quickly than a tear."[17]

Pathos before Aristotle[edit]

The concept of emotional appeal existed in rhetoric long before Aristotle's Rhetoric. George A. Kennedy, a well-respected, modern-day scholar, identifies the appeal to emotions in the newly formed democratic court system before 400 BC in his book, The Art of Persuasion in Greece.[18]Gorgias, a Sophist who preceded Aristotle, was interested in the orator's emotional appeal as well. Gorgias believed the orator was able to capture and lead the audience in any direction they pleased through the use of emotional appeal.[18] In the Encomium of Helen, Gorgias states that a soul can feel a particular sentiment on account of words such as sorrow and pity. Certain words act as "bringers-on of pleasure and takers-off of pain.[19] Furthermore, Gorgias equates emotional persuasion to the sensation of being overtaken by a drug: "[f]or just as different drug draw off different humors from the body, and some put an end to disease and other to life, so too of discourses: some give pain, others delight, others terrify, others rouse the hearers to courage, and yet others by a certain vile persuasion drug and trick to soul."[19]

Plato also discussed emotional appeal in rhetoric. Plato preceded Aristotle and therefore laid the groundwork, as did other Sophists, for Aristotle to theorize the concept of pathos. In his dialogue Gorgias, Plato discusses pleasure versus pain in the realm of pathos though in a (probably fictional) conversation between Gorgias and Socrates. The dialogue between several ancient rhetors that Plato created centers around the value of rhetoric, and the men incorporate aspects of pathos in their responses. Gorgias discredits pathos and instead promotes the use of ethos in persuasion.[20] In another of Plato's texts, Phaedrus, his discussion of emotions is more pointed; however, he still does not outline exactly how emotions manipulate an audience.[21] Plato discusses the danger of emotions in oratory. He argues that emotional appeal in rhetoric should be used as the means to an end and not the point of the discussion.[21]

Contemporary pathos[edit]

George Campbell, a contributor to the Scottish Enlightenment, was one of the first rhetoricians to incorporate scientific evidence into his theory of emotional appeal.[22] Campbell relied heavily on a book written by physician David Hartley, entitled Observations on Man. The book synthesized emotions and neurology and introduced the concept that action is a result of impression. Hartley determined that emotions drive people to react to appeals based on circumstance but also passions made up of cognitive impulses.[22] Campbell argues that belief and persuasion depend heavily on the force of an emotional appeal.[23] Furthermore, Campbell introduced the importance of the audience's imagination and will on emotional persuasion that is equally as important as basic understanding of an argument.[23] Campbell, by drawing on the theories of rhetoricians before him, drew up a contemporary view of pathos that incorporates the psychological aspect of emotional appeal.

Pathos in politics[edit]

Pathos has its hand in politics as well, primarily in speech and how to persuade the audience. Mshvenieradze states that "Pathos is directly linked with an audience. Audience is a collective subject of speakers on which an orator tries to impact by own argumentation."[24] Similarly to how Aristotle discusses how to effectively utilize pathos in rhetoric, the way in which one appeals to the reader is similar in appealing to an audience of voters. In the case of politics and politicians, it is primarily more in argumentative writing and speaking. In Book II of Aristotle's writing's in Rhetoric, in essence knowing people's emotions helps to enable one to act with words versus writing alone, to earn another's credibility and faith.[25]

As Aristotle's teachings expanded, many other groups of thinkers would go on to adopt different variations of political usage with the elements of pathos involved, which includes groups such as the Epicureans[26] and Stoics.[27][28][29]

Pathos in advertising[edit]

The contemporary landscape for advertising is highly competitive due to the sheer amount of marketing done by companies. Pathos has become a popular tool to draw consumers in as it targets their emotional side. Studies show that emotion influences people's information processing and decision-making, making pathos a perfect tool for persuading consumers to buy goods and services.[30] In this digital age, "designers must go beyond aesthetics and industrial feasibility to integrate the aspect of 'emotional awareness'".[31] Companies today contain current culture references in their advertisement and oftentimes strive to make the audience feel involved.[32] In other words, it is not enough to have a pleasant looking advertisement; corporations may have to use additional design methods to persuade and gain consumers to buy their products. For example, this type of advertising is exemplified in large food brands such as Presidents Choice's "Eat Together" campaign (2017), and Coca-Cola's "Open-happiness" campaign (2009). One of the most well known examples of pathos in advertising is the SPCA commercials with pictures of stray dogs with sad music.

Pathos in research

Pathos can also be also used in credited medical journals, research and other academic pieces of writing. The goal is to appeal to the readers' emotion while maintaining the necessary requirements of the medical discourse community. Authors may do so, by using certain vocabulary to elicit an emotional response from the audience. “God-terms” are often used as a rhetorical technique. It is imperative that authors still preserve the standard of writing within the medical community by focusing on factual and scientific information without use of personal opinion.[33][34]

See also[edit]

For more reading or examples:


  1. ^P.N. Singer, Galen's Psychological Writings, 2013 p 209
  2. ^P.N. Singer, Galen's Psychological Writings, 2013 p 209
  3. ^P.N. Singer, Galen's Psychological Writings, 2013 p 209
  4. ^Walker, R. (2014). Strategic management communication for leaders. Nelson Education. Retrieved from
  5. ^P.N. Singer, Galen's Psychological Writings, 2013 p 209
  6. ^Warren, James. "Epicureans and Cyrenaics on pleasure as a pathos". Forthcoming in S. Marchand and F. Verde Eds. Épicurisme et Scepticisme, Rome: Sapienza Università Editrice: 127–44.
  7. ^Aristotle, and George Alexander Kennedy. (1991) Aristotle On Rhetoric: A Theory of Civic Discourse. New York: Oxford Up. Print. p. 119.
  8. ^ abcAristotle; Bizzell, Patricia; Herzerberg, Bruce. (2001). On Rhetoric (Second ed). New York: Bedford/ St. Martin's.
  9. ^Lee, Irving. (1939). "Some Conceptions in Emotional Appeal in Rhetorical Theory."Speech Monographs. 6(1):66-86.
  10. ^Fortenbaugh, W. (1974). Aristotle's Rhetoric on Emotions. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow. Print. p.232.
  11. ^ abcAristotle; Bizzell, Patricia; Herzberg, Bruce (2001). On Rhetoric (Second ed.). New York: Bedford/ St. Martin's.
  12. ^Braet, Antoine C. "Ethos, pathos and logos in Aristotle's Rhetoric: A re-examination." Argumentation 6.3 (1992): 307-320.
  13. ^Lee, Irving (1939). "Some Conceptions on Emotional Appeal in Rhetorical Theory". Speech Monographs. 6 (1): 66–86. doi:10.1080/03637753909374862.
  14. ^Mshvenieradze, T. (2013). Logos ethos and pathos in political discourse. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 3(11), 1939+.
  15. ^Fortenbaugh, W. (1974) Aristotle's Rhetoric on Emotions. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow. Print. p.232.
  16. ^Campbell, George, and Lloyd F. Bitzer. The Philosophy of Rhetoric. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1963. Print.p.81-89.
  17. ^ abcAnonymous; Bizzell, Patricia; Herzberg, Bruce (2001). Rhetorica ad Herennium. Bedford/ St.Martins.
  18. ^ abKennedy, George (1963). The Art of Persuasion in Greece. Princeton University Press.
  19. ^ abGorgias; Bizzell, Patricia; Bruce, Herzberg. The Rhetorical Tradition (Second Edition). Encomium of Helen.
  20. ^Plato; Bizzell, Patricia; Herzberg, Bruce. The Rhetorical Tradition (Second Edition). Gorgias. Bedford/ St. Martin's.
  21. ^ abPlato; Bizzell, Patricia; Herzberg, Bruce (2001). The Rhetorical Tradition (Second Edition). Phaedrus. New York: Bedford/ St. Martin's.
  22. ^ abGardiner, Norman (1937). Feeling and Emotion: A History of Theories. New York: American Book Co.
  23. ^ abGolden, James; Corbett, Edward (1990). The Rhetoric of Blair, Campbell, and Whately. SIU Press.
  24. ^Brecher, N. D. (2017). Persuasive presentations: Leading people to rally to your call takes preparation. Journal of Property Management, 82(3), 37.
  25. ^Budzyńska-Daca, A., & Botwina, R. (2015). Pre-election TV debates–persuasive games between ethos, logos, and pathos. Persuasive Games in Political and Professional Dialogue, 26, 39.
  26. ^Epicureans
  27. ^Stoics
  28. ^Konstan, D. (2018). Epicurus. In Edward N. Zalta (Ed.), The stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Retrieved from
  29. ^O'Gorman, N. (2011). Stoic rhetoric: Prospects of a problematic. Advances in the History of Rhetoric, 14(1), 1-13. doi:10.1080/15362426.2011.559395
  30. ^Amic G. Ho & Kin Wai Michael (2012). "Emotion Design, Emotional Design, Emotionalize Design: A Review on Their Relationships from a New Perspectiv". The Design Journal. 15 (1): 9–32. doi:10.2752/175630612X13192035508462. S2CID 145665443.
  31. ^Robinson, M. (2004). The comprehension shift HMI of the future—designers of the future. In McDonagh, D. & Hekkert, P. Design and emotion: the experience of everyday things. London, USA, and Canada: Taylor & Francis.
  32. ^Higgins, Colin, and Robyn Walker. "Ethos, logos, pathos: Strategies of persuasion in social/environmental reports." Accounting Forum. Vol. 36. No. 3. Taylor & Francis, 2012.
  33. ^Varpio, Lara (2018-06-01). "Using rhetorical appeals to credibility, logic, and emotions to increase your persuasiveness". Perspectives on Medical Education. 7 (3): 207–210. doi:10.1007/s40037-018-0420-2. ISSN 2212-277X. PMC 6002292. PMID 29736855.
  34. ^Gusfield, Joseph (1976). "The Literary Rhetoric of Science: Comedy and Pathos in Drinking Driver Research". American Sociological Review. 41 (1): 16–34. doi:10.2307/2094370. ISSN 0003-1224. JSTOR 2094370.

External links[edit]

  • The dictionary definition of pathos at Wiktionary
What are Rhetorical Strategies?  Tools that help writers and other communicators craft language (textual) or images (visual) so as to have an effect on the audience/reader.  Strategies are means of persuasion, a way to get the reader’s/audience’s attention. Strategies  Rhetorical Strategy: a particular way in which authors craft language so as to have an effect on readers. Strategies are means of persuasion, ways of gaining a readers’ attention, interest, or agreement. Strategies can be identified in the way an author organizes her text, selects evidence, addresses the reader, frames an issue, presents a definition, constructs a persona or establishes credibility, appeals to authority, deals with opposing views, uses “meta-discourse,” makes particular use of style and tone, draws on particular tropes and images, as well as many of the other textual choices that can be identified.  Common strategies: ethos, pathos, logos, framing, definitions, categories, word choice, style as strategy, rebuttals, metadiscourse, organization, tropes, etc. Strategies are everywhere  Photos of SDSU student election campaign signs - student posters are mostly seeking to be memorable, but also to persuade. What strategies can you identify? Are they effective? ( How do we analyze strategies? 1. 2. 3. 4.  Identify the rhetorical strategy in the text/film and give an example. Describe how they work. Describe why they are used – what purpose do they accomplish? Always include a discussion of how the strategy helps the author/film maker develop and support the argument. Let’s look at different types of strategies… Authorities or “Big Names”  Commonly referred to as “appeals to authority,” using “Big Names” makes a statement/claim/ argument seem authoritative, well researched, believable.  In analysis, answer the following question:  How does this appeal to authority build trust in the author’s argument? Commonplaces  Also known as “hidden assumptions,” “hidden beliefs,” and “ideologies”  They include assumptions, many of them unconscious, that groups of people hold in common.  In analysis, answer the following questions:     Who is the intended audience of the piece? What are some of the assumptions of this intended audience? What hidden assumptions or beliefs does the speaker have about the topic? How is the speaker or author appealing to the hidden assumptions of the audience? How does the use of commonplaces further the argument? Comparison & Contrast  Discussion of similarities and differences.  In analysis, answer the following questions:  Which two or more related subjects are discussed?  How are the subjects alike or different?  How does the comparison further the argument of the piece? Definition  When authors define certain words, these definitions are specifically formulated for the specific purpose he/she has in mind.  These definitions are crafted uniquely for the intended audience.  In analysis, answer the following questions:     Who is the intended audience? Does the text focus on any abstract, specialized, or new terms that need further explanation so that the readers/viewers understand the point? How has the speaker or author chosen to define terms for the audience? What effect does the definition have on the audience, or how does this definition help further the argument? Definitions and division invite particular perspectives on the world The politics of definitions Gay psychologist wears a mask at the American Psychological Association conference in 1972. He is on a panel arguing that APA definitions of homosexuality as a mental illness should be abolished The Politics of Definition Consider how the following definitions and terms involve questions of power, value and ideology 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mr, Mrs, Miss (Ms.) defines women in terms of their marital status, but not men (hence Ms.) The convention of women being identified by the last name of their father or husband. “Enhanced interrogation,” “enemy combatants,” “war on terror,” “axis of evil” “Far East, Middle East, Near East” (defining regions wrt proximity to Britain) MEDICINE: The re/definition and medicalization of illness: “male pattern baldness” (going bald) “social anxiety disorder” (shyness) “ED, or erectile dysfunction” (formerly impotence) “halitosis (bad breath) PSYCHOLOGY: APA redefines homosexuality in 1972 (before 1972 it is listed as a mental illness); the many shifting re/definitions of conditions, from hysteria to depression to sexual identity (trans-gender, transexual, bisexual, etc.) The Politics of Definition 6. 7. 8. 9. RACE: the one drop rule; Negro, Black, African American; miscegenation laws. In South Africa the Japanese are defined as white, as Japan = key trading partner. Others are black or colored (Asian). In Brazil, definitions of race are particularly varied. In the U.S., “Caucasian” has been redefined many times – sometimes includes people from India, Afghanistan, Turkey, and the Mediterranean countries, and at other times (esp. wrt immigration) not. Consider Germany – citizenship is largely defined in terms of racial/ethnic and national “descent” rather than place (unlike in the U.S., the children of foreigners assume their parents' nationality.) In most countries, racial definitions shift frequently, shaped by ideology, power, economics and history. Consider - the terms Maori and Pakeha in NZ. SOCIAL ISSUES: drugs and alcoholism as moral failings vs. addictions. LEGAL DEFINITIONS: the recent supreme court case ruling on the free speech rights of corporations; defining rape within marriage as a crime (for a long time it wasn’t in many countries) How should we re/define marriage (debates about gay marriage). Is marriage primarily to be defined as religious, as about procreation, stability and other social goods, a love relationship, etc. Definition of Caucasian: 1932. A messy mix of region and some general features. (note: Aryan refers to subset of Caucasians, Indo-European language) The Races of Men, Smallwood et al. 1952, p. 264 (cited by Morning, 2008)  In the United States, the term ‘Caucasian’ has been mainly used to describe a group commonly called White Americans, as defined by the government and Census Bureau.[22] Between 1917 and 1965, immigration to the US was restricted by a national origins quota. The Supreme Court in United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind (1923) decided that Asian Indians – unlike Europeans and Middle Easterners – were Caucasian, but were not white, because most laypeople did not consider them to be white people. This was important for determining whether they could become naturalized citizens, then limited to free whites. The court and government changed its opinion in 1946. In 1965 major changes were made to immigration law, lifting earlier restrictions on immigrants from Asia.[23] (Wikipedia) Five Major Human Races” (Oram et al. 1976, p. 614) The social construction of race  “There is no more biological reason to speak of the Indians, Whites, and Blacks as distinct races than there is to speak of red-haired, brown-haired, and gray-haired people as distinct races. This is not to say that races are not “real.” They are all too real, but understanding how races are formed and perpetuated in societies is a matter of looking into social history, not biology.” “Two Anthropologists Reflect on Race & Racism: What is Race? An Anthropological View.” By Thomas Bilosi and Marc Feldesman, DIVERSITY Vol.2 1992. Marriage Marriage History  From the 5th to the 14th centuries, the Roman Catholic Church conducted special ceremonies to bless same-sex unions which were almost identical for those to bless heterosexual unions. At the very least, these were spiritual, if not sexual, unions.  In 1076, Pope Alexander II issued a decree prohibiting marriages between couples who were more closely related than 6th cousins.  In the 16th century, servants and day laborers were not allowed to marry in Bavaria and Austria unless they had the permission of local political authorities. This law was not finally abolished in Austria until 1921.  From the 1690s to the 1870s, "wife sale" was common in rural and small-town England. To divorce his wife, a husband could present her with a rope around her neck in a public sale to another man. Description  Details sensory perceptions of a person, place or thing.  In analysis, answer the following questions:     Does a person, place or thing play a prominent role in the text or film? Does the tone, pacing or overall purpose of the essay benefit from the sensory details? What emotions might these details evoke in the audience (see Pathos)? How does the description help the author further the argument? Division & Classification  Divides a whole into parts or sorts related items into categories.  In analysis, answer the following questions:    If the author/film maker trying to explain a broad or complicated subject? Does it benefit the text/film to reduce the subject to more manageable parts to focus the discussion? How does the division and classification help further the overall argument?  How does the division and classification of injuries to various body systems/organs in the Quit Smoking ad shown before help its argument? Exemplification  Provides examples or cases in point.  In analysis, answer the following questions:  What examples, facts, statistics, cases in point, personal experiences, or interview questions does the author/film maker add to illustrate claims or illuminate the argument?  What effect do these have on the reader/audience? Ethos  Aristotle’s term ethos refers to the credibility, character or personality of the speaker or author or someone else connected to the argument.  Ethos brings up questions of ethics and trust between the speaker or author and the audience.  In analysis, answer the following questions:     How and why is the speaker / author trying to get the audience to trust her or him? What specifically does the author do to obtain the audience’s trust? How does the author/speaker show fairness? Understanding of the topic? Trusworthy-ness? Consideration of the audience’s needs? How does the author/speaker construct credibility for his/her argument? Evidence of an author’s ethos:  References to the author’s background, profession, previous work, guiding philosophy, etc.  Comments that indicate sincerity, fair-mindedness, expertise, likeability, moral vision, etc.  Concessions to the opposing arguments. (Or, for signs of lacking ethos, places the author fails to acknowledge such arguments or evidence.)  Use of appropriate evidence, language and style in light of the targeted audience. Logos  Refers to the use of logic , reason, facts, statistics, data and numbers.  Logos often seems tangible and touchable, so much more real than other rhetorical strategies.  In analysis, answer the following questions:    How and why does the other chose logos? How does the author show there are good reasons to support his or her argument? What kind of evidence does the author use to construct logos, and how does this further the argument? Pathos  Refers to feelings.  The author/speaker wants the audience to feel the same emotion that he/she is feeling, whether or not they actually agree with the topic.  In this way, the audience is more likely to eventually agree with the author/speaker later on.  In analysis, answer the following questions:    What specific emotion does the author invoke? How? How does he/she use emotion as a tool to persuade the audience? How does the use of emotion help further the argument? Pathos: Appealing to Emotions  Words or passages that activate emotions, usually because they relate to readers’ or hearers' deeply held values or beliefs.  Pathos is not necessarily a strategy of writing about emotional subjects or of describing strong emotions. It is a strategy of using language in ways that evoke emotions in audiences. The rhetorical effect of the appeals results from RHETORICAL STRATEGIES.  For example: When an author chooses to support a claim with a touching personal story, the strategy of choosing that type of evidence results in a pathos appeal to the reader’s emotions, an ethos appeal by showing the writer to be a caring person, and a logos appeal by showing the reasonable conclusion arrived at when connecting the story to the claim. Identification  This is rhetorician Kenneth Burke’s term for the act of “identifying” with another person who shares your values or beliefs.  Many speakers or authors try to identify with an audience or convince an audience to identify with them and their argument.  In analysis, answer the following question:   How does the author build a connection between him/herself and the audience? How does this connection further the argument? Metadiscourse  Language about language.  Announces to the reader what the writer is doing, helping the reader to recognize the author’s plan.  Can be used to both announce the overall project or purpose of the paper and to announce its argument.  Can provide “Signposts” along the way, guiding the reader to what will come next and showing how it is connected to what has come before.  In analysis, answer the following questions:   What is the author’s voice in this text/film? How does it enter and guide the audience through the text/film? How does the author’s use of metadiscourse further the argument?  Below are some examples of metadiscourse in writing, denoting:     the writer's intentions: "to sum up," "candidly," "I believe" the writer's confidence: "may," "perhaps," "certainly," "must" directions to the reader: "note that," "finally," "therefore," "however" the structure of the text: "first," "second," "finally," "therefore," "however"  Most writing needs metadiscourse, but too much buries ideas. Technical, academic, and other nonfiction writers should use metadiscourse sparingly.[ Metaphors, Similes, Analogies  Commonly referred to as “figurative language”  Comparison of two parallel terms or situations in which the traits of one are similar to another – often one relatively firm and concrete, and the other less familiar and concrete.  Simile is an analogy that use “like” or “as”  These allow the author / film maker to use concrete, easily understood ideas to clarify a less obvious point.  In analysis, answer the following question:   What two things are being compared? How does the author’s / film maker’s use of figurative language help further the argument? Help the audience view the argument in a new way? All the world’s a stage, And all the men and women merely players; They have their exits and their entrances; Shakespeare from the play As You Like It Examples of antimetabole  "I meant what I said, and I said what I meant. An elephant's     faithful, one hundred percent!" Dr. Seuss, Horton Hatches an Egg. “Ask not what your country can do for you - ask what you can do for your country.” JFK’s "The absence of evidence is not the evidence of absence." Carl Sagan "Whether we bring our enemies to justice or bring justice to our enemies, justice will be done."-- George W. Bush, 9-2001. "Who sheds the blood of a man, by a man shall his blood be shed" (Genesis 9:6) Recent speeches: top trope = antimetabole, top theme = change  "In politics, there are some candidates who use change to promote their careers. And then there are those, like John McCain, who use their careers to promote change."  "We were elected to change Washington, and we let Washington change us."  "People the world over have always been more impressed by the power of our example than by the example of our power."  "In the end the true test is not the speeches a president delivers, it's whether the president delivers on the speeches." Tricolon  One ring to rule them all….  Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness….  Sex, drugs, and rock and roll…  Red, white and blue,  I came, I saw, I conquered  VS – it was the best of times, it was the worst of times Drink “provokes the desire but takes away the performance.” William Shakespeare Analogy Prolepsis  Anticipating the opposition’s best argument and addressing it in advance.  Also known as “Counterargument and Rebuttal.”  Uses the reality that readers often interact with the text and ask questions of it – disagreeing and pointing out where there are differing opinions or weaknesses in argument – as a tool to help the reader believe the argument.  In analysis, answer the following questions:   How does the author present any counterarguments or rebuttals? What effect do the counterarguments or rebuttals have on the power of the author’s argument? Questioning  Rhetorical Questions: a question designed to have one correct answer. The author leads the reader into a position rather than stating it explicitly.  In analysis, answer the following questions:   Why does the author ask a question with an obvious answer? How does the use of the rhetorical question strengthen the author’s argument?  Transitional Questions: Leads the reader into a new subject area or area of the argument.   How does the transitional question help guide the reader? How does the use of the transitional question help the author organize his argument?  The Daily Show & the rhetorical question.  Explores leading question, the issue of framing, agency, responsibility, etc.  september-13-2006/the-question-mark Organization & Structure  Problem-Solution: argument presents a problem and a potential solution. Description of the need to make coffee at home to save money.  Cause and Effect: argument describes the relationship between the cause or catalyst of an event and the effect. Description of identifying the over-consumption of candy as the cause of tooth decay. Organization and Complexity: Language of health insurance policies – and politics of “plain language” movement.  “The plan covering the patient as a dependent child of a person whose date of birth occurs earlier in the calendar year shall be primary over the plan covering the patient as a dependent of a person whose date of birth occurs later in the calendar year provided. However, in the case of a dependent child of legally separated or divorced parents, the plan covering the patient as a dependent of the parent with legal custody, or as a dependent of the custodial parents spouse shall be primary over the plan covering the patient as a dependent of the parent without legal custody.”  According to the Flesch-Kincaid measure of readability, this passage is written at graduate-school level. It’s also highly hypotactic, consisting of 2 long, deeply subordinated sentences. Revised for 8th grade readability (paratactic not hypotactic – written more like spoken conversation)  What happens if my spouse and I both have health coverage for our child? The parent whose birthday is earlier in the year pays the claim first. For example: Your birthday is in March; your spouse’s birthday is in May. March comes earlier in the year than May, so your policy will pay for your child’s claim first.  What happens if I am separated or divorced? If your child is covered by your policy and also by the policy of your separated or divorced spouse, the policy of the parent with legal custody pays first – i.e. if you have legal custody, your plan pays first. The same rule applies even if your child is covered by a health insurance policy of a stepparent. For example: Your former spouse has legal custody, and his/her new spouse’s policy covers your child. The new spouse’s policy will pay your child’s claim first.  What can be inferred from the design of the following spaces/objects? shape/constrain behavior, & whose behavior is targeted? The rise of the “bum-proof” bench in Los Angeles  "One of the most common, but mindnumbing, of these deterrents is the [L.A.] Rapid Transit District’s new barrelshaped bus bench that offers a minimal surface for uncomfortable sitting, while making sleeping utterly impossible. Such ‘bumproof’ benches are being widely introduced on the periphery of Skid Row. Another the aggressive deployment of outdoor sprinklers. Several years ago the city opened a ‘Skid Row Park’ along lower Fifth Street, on a corner of Hell. To ensure that the park was not used for sleeping--that is, to guarantee that it was mainly utilized for drug dealing and prostitution--the city installed an elaborate overhead sprinkler system programmed to drench unsuspecting sleepers at random times during the night. The system was immediately copied by some local businessmen in order to drive the homeless away from adjacent public sidewalks.“Mike Davis, City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles, p. 233. Why design walls & curbs this way? Architects explain how they design spaces to discourage skateboarders (& other undesirables):  “Because I was curious about how the designers of some of these details felt about them, I took a trip to the San Francisco Department of Public Works where I introduced myself as an editor of Urban Action. I spoke to two landscape architects both of whom were very solicitous. One was acutely aware that "San Francisco is the most famous skatespot in the world"—this was the architect in charge of everything-proofing the city: skateproofing, bumproofing, graffitiproofing, and so on. (She is also the architect who told me that the anti-skate metal clips are called “pig ears.”)…you try to predict the behavior of undesirables and obviate those behaviors with subtle design techniques: bright lights in corners, narrow benches, rigid circulation patterns, and so on.” Strategies in Sculpture: Maya Lin’s Vietnam War Memorial Why these choices for a memorial – what strategies might they represent?  The Vietnam war memorial is black  It is made of reflective black granite. When a visitor looks at the wall,     she will see the engraved names and her own reflection The monument is built along a pathway that requires people to move along the small corridor of space Unlike many monuments, it lists all the names of U.S. soldiers who died, and it does so in chronological rather than alphabetic order (Lin has she wanted the wall to read “‘like an epic Greek poem’ and ‘return the vets to the time frame of the war’) Information about rank, unit, and decorations are not given The wall is V-shaped, with one side pointing to the Lincoln Memorial and the other to the Washington Monument. Lin's conception was to create an opening or a wound in the earth to symbolize the gravity of the loss of the soldiers
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History of Public Speaking

Our current knowledge and practice of public speaking draws upon the Western thought from ancient Greece and Rome.

The Classical Period (500 BCE-400 BCE)

The ancient Greeks highly valued public political participation, where public speaking was a crucial tool. We will begin our tour of Ancient Greece with the “fantastic four”—Aspasia of Miletus, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.

Aspasia of Miletus (469 BCE), the “mother of rhetoric,” is believed to have taught rhetoric to Socrates. During this period Pericles, the Athenian ruler and Aspasia’s partner, treated Aspasia as an equal and allowed her every opportunity to engage in dialogue with the important and educated men of society.

Socrates (469-399 BCE) greatly influenced the direction of the Classical Period. Most of what we know about Socrates comes from the writings of his student Plato.

Plato (429-347 BCE) wrote about rhetoric in the form of dialogues with Socrates as the main character. Plato defined the scope of rhetoric according to his negative opinions of the art. He criticized the Sophists for using rhetoric as a means of deceit instead of discovering truth.

Aristotle (384-322 BCE) is the most famous Greek Scholar. Aristotle studied in Plato’s Academy where he later taught public speaking until Plato’s death in 347 BCE, when he opened his own school of politics, science, philosophy, and rhetoric. Aristotle defined rhetoric as the “faculty of discovering the possible means of persuasion in reference to any subject whatever.” Aristotle divided the “means of persuasion” into three parts, or three artistic proofs, necessary to persuade others: logical reason (logos), human character (ethos), and emotional appeal (pathos).

Sophist (400s BCE): The Classical Period flourished for nearly a millennium in and around Greece as democracy gained prominence. Citizens learned public speakingfrom early teachers known as Sophists. Sophists were self-appointed professors of how to succeed in the civic life of the Greek states.

The Romans--Cicero and Quintilian

Cicero (106-43 BCE) Cicero is considered one of the most significant rhetoricians of all time. His works include the early and very influential De Inventione (On Invention), often read alongside the Ad Herennium as the two basic texts of rhetorical theory throughout the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance), De Oratore (a fuller statement of rhetorical principles in dialogue form), Topics (a rhetorical treatment of common topics, highly influential through the Renaissance). Cicero is most famous in the field of public speaking for creating the five canons of rhetoric, a five-step process for developing a persuasive speech that we still use to teach public speaking today.

Quintilian (c. 35-95 CE) extended this line of thinking and argued that public speaking was inherently moral. He stated that the ideal orator is “a good man speaking well."

The Medieval Period (400 CE-1400 CE)

In contrast to the Classical Period, which saw tremendous growth and innovation in the study of communication, the Medieval Period might be considered the dark ages of academic study in public speaking. The church felt threatened by secular rhetorical works they considered full of pagan thought. The Church did, however, focus on persuasion and developing public presentation to improve preaching.

St. Augustine (354 CE-430 CE), a Christian clergyman and renowned rhetorician, argued for the continued development of ideas that had originated during the Classical Period. He thought that the study of persuasion, in particular, was a worthwhile pursuit for the church.

The Renaissance (1400-1600 CE)

Powered by a new intellectual movement during this period, secular institutions and governments started to compete with the church for personal allegiances. Idea s surrounding issues of style in speaking situations received significant attention during the Renaissance period.

Petrus Ramus (1515-1572) paid great attention to the idea of style by actually grouping style and delivery of the five canons together. Ramus also argued that invention and arrangement did not fit the canon and should be the focus of logic, not rhetoric. Ramus challenged much of what early scholars thought of truth, ethics, and morals as they applied to communication.

Francis Bacon (1561-1626), a contemporary of Shakespeare, believed that the journey to truth was paramount to the study and performance of communication. According to Bacon, reason and morality required speakers to have a high degree of accountability, making it an essential element in oration.

The Enlightenment (1600-1800 CE)

Neoclassicism revived the classical approach to rhetoric by adapting and applying it to contemporary situations.

George Campbell (1719-1796),he Scottish minister and educator, tried to create convincing arguments using scientific and moral reasoning by seeking to understand how people used speech to persuade others.

Finally, the elocutionary approach (mid 1700's to mid-1800's) concentrated on delivery and style by providing strict rules for a speaker’s bodily actions such as gestures, facial expressions, tone, and pronunciation.

Overall, the Enlightenment Period served as a bridge between the past and the present. Political rhetoric also underwent renewal in the wake of the US and French revolutions. The rhetorical studies of ancient Greece and Rome were resurrected in the studies of the era as speakers and teachers looked to Cicero and others to inspire defense of the new republic. Leading rhetorical theorists included John Quincy Adams of Harvard advocated for the democratic advancement of the art of rhetoric.

New School--1900s and 2000s Through Today

Throughout the 20th century, rhetoric developed as a concentrated field of study with the establishment of rhetorical courses in high schools and universities. Courses such as public speaking and speech analysis apply fundamental Greek theories (such as the modes of persuasion: ethos, pathos, and logos as well as trace rhetorical development throughout the course of history.

1960’s and 70’s saw renewed emphasis and focus on the works of those from the Classical Period. Thus, the 60’s and 70’s worked to bridge together the old and new school of Communication study for the first time. Communication departments had professors who studied and taught classical rhetoric, contemporary rhetoric, along with empirical and qualitative social science.


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Ethos Pathos Logos

What are the definitions of Ethos, Logos, and Pathos? What is an easy way to remember them?

Before we dive in, let's first talk about where these concepts come from. The answer is Aristotle (384-322 BCE), who wrote extensively on the subject of rhetoric (the art of persuasive speaking and writing).

Ethos, Pathos, and Logos are three different ways to be persuasive.

  • Ethos (from the Greek for "character") serves to highlight the persuader's credibility or ethical state. A couple of examples:

As a doctor, I can tell you that your diet is of concern and so you should eat better.

As a dad to two children, I believe you should play sports with your kids.

  • Pathos (from the Greek for "suffering" and "experience") is an appeal to someone's emotions. A couple of examples:

How can you allow this kind of behaviour to occur in a town full of God fearing people?

After years of working for the company, how can they simply just let me go?

  • Logos (from the Greek for "I say") is an appeal to logic and reason. A couple of examples:

According to a recent study, being a parent is linked to an increase in hair loss.

I know it sounds incredible but the math checks out.

And, of course, we can mix and match them:

Bob, as your doctor, I have to advise you to give up smoking (Ethos). Your lungs are literally dying - you can see it here on this scan (Logos). You are killing yourself and you'll leave behind your wife and family who are absolutely dependent on you (Pathos).

In terms of how to remember these, perhaps try this:

Ethos is close to "ethics" - the appeal is to the ethical and responsible behaviour of the speaker.

Logos is close to "logic" - the appeal to logic and reason.

Pathos is close to "pathetic" - which is something we say when feeling disgust.

For more on Ethos, Pathos, and Logos, try the links below:


Wiki logos ethos, pathos

Modes of persuasion

Strategies of rhetoric

The modes of persuasion, modes of appeal or rhetorical appeals (Greek: pisteis) are strategies of rhetoric that classify a speaker's or writer's appeal to their audience. These include ethos, pathos, and logos.[1]


Main article: Ethos

Ethos (plural: ethea) is an appeal to the authority or credibility of the presenter.[2]: 41  It is how well the presenter convinces the audience that the presenter is qualified to speak on the subject. This can be done by:

  • Being a notable figure in the field in question, such as a college professor or an executive of a company whose business is related to the presenter's topic
  • Demonstrating mastery of the terminology of the field (cant)
  • Being introduced by or producing bona fides from other established authorities


Main article: Pathos

Pathos (plural: pathea) is an appeal to the audience's emotions.[2]: 42  The terms sympathy, pathetic, and empathy are derived from it. It can be in the form of metaphor, simile, a passionate delivery, or even a simple claim that a matter is unjust. Pathos can be particularly powerful if used well, but most speeches do not solely rely on pathos. Pathos is most effective when the author or speaker demonstrates agreement with an underlying value of the reader or listener.

In addition, the speaker may use pathos and fear to sway the audience. Pathos may also include appeals to audience imagination and hopes; done when the speaker paints a scenario of positive future results of following the course of action proposed.

In some cases, downplaying the ethos can be done while emphasizing pathos, for example as William Jennings Bryan did in his Cross of Gold speech:

I would be presumptuous, indeed, to present myself against the distinguished gentlemen to whom you have listened if this were but a measuring of ability; but this is not a contest among persons. The humblest citizen in all the land when clad in the armor of a righteous cause is stronger than all the whole hosts of error that they can bring. I come to speak to you in defense of a cause as holy as the cause of liberty—the cause of humanity.

— William Jennings Bryan[3]


Main article: Logos

Logos (plural: logoi) is logical appeal or the simulation of it,[2]: 38  and the term logic is derived from it. It is normally used to describe facts and figures that support the speaker's claims or thesis. There are also more traditional forms of logical reasoning such as syllogisms and enthymemes.[2]: 38–39  Having a logos appeal also enhances ethos because information makes the speaker look knowledgeable and prepared to his or her audience. However, the data can be confusing and thus confuse the audience. Logos can also be misleading or inaccurate, however meaningful it may seem to the subject at hand. In some cases, inaccurate, falsified, or misconstrued even be used to enact a pathos effect. Such is the case with casualty numbers, which, while not necessarily falsified, may include minor casualties (injuries) that are equated with deaths in the mind of an audience and therefore can evoke the same effect as a death toll.


External links[edit]

Ethos Pathos Logos

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The modes of persuasion are devices in rhetoric that classify the speaker's appeal to the audience. They are: ethos, pathos and logos.

Aristotle's On Rhetoric describes the modes of persuasion thus:

Persuasion is clearly a sort of demonstration, since we are most fully persuaded when we consider a thing to have been demonstrated.
Of the modes of persuasion furnished by the spoken word there are three kinds. [...] Persuasion is achieved by the speaker's personal character when the speech is so spoken as to make us think him credible. [...] Secondly, persuasion may come through the hearers, when the speech stirs their emotions. [...] Thirdly, persuasion is effected through the speech itself when we have proved a truth or an apparent truth by means of the persuasive arguments suitable to the case in question.


Main article: Ethos#Rhetoric

Ethos (plural: ethe) is an appeal to the authority or honesty of the speaker. It is how well the speaker convinces the audience that he or she is qualified to speak on the particular subject. It can be done in many ways:

  • By being a notable figure in the field in question, such as a college professor or an executive of a company whose business is that of the subject.
  • By having a vested interest in a matter, such as the person being related to the subject in question.
  • By using impressive logos that shows to the audience that the speaker is knowledgeable on the topic.
  • By appealing to a person's ethics or character.


Main article: Pathos

Pathos (plural: patha or pathea) is an appeal to the audience’s emotions. It can be in the form of metaphor, simile, a passionate delivery, or even a simple claim that a matter is unjust. Pathos can be particularly powerful if used well, but most speeches do not solely rely on pathos. Pathos is most effective when the author connects with an underlying value of the reader.

In addition, the speaker may use pathos to appeal to fear, in order to sway the audience.


Main article: Logos#Use in rhetoric

Logos (plural: logoi) is logical appeal or the simulation of it, and the term logic is derived from it. It is normally used to describe facts and figures that support the speaker's topic. Having a logos appeal also enhances ethos (see above) because information makes the speaker look knowledgeable and prepared to his or her audience. However, data can be confusing and thus confuse the audience. Logos can also be misleading or inaccurate.

See also[]

External links[]


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