Bach mozart, beethoven timeline

Bach mozart, beethoven timeline DEFAULT

The following list presents some 1100 composers arranged into a timeline based purely on their date of birth. For convenience sake, the list has been divided into nine sections with general, and somewhat arbitrary, descriptive headings. The divisions simply break the list up into more manageable sections, and serve as a reminder as to what "period" the composer may be associated with. The divisions are not meant to provide distinct stylistic definitions. Any individual composer, especially on the boundaries, may be misclassified.

Graphical Timelines

Table of Contents for This File

     Medieval - 11th though 14th Centuries
     Early Renaissance - 15th Century
     High Renaissance - 16th Century
     Early Baroque - Late 16th and 17th Centuries
     High Baroque - Late 17th and Early 18th Centuries
     Classical/Romantic - Late 18th Century
     Romantic - Early 19th Century
     Romantic/Modern - Late 19th Century
     Modern - 20th Century

Medieval - 11th though 14th Centuries

  • Petrus Abaelardus (1079 - 1142)
  • Hildegard von Bingen (1098 - 1179)
  • Pérotin Magister (c. 1155 - c. 1250)
  • Léonin Magister (fl. c. 1150 - 1201?)
  • Philippe Le Chancelier (c. 1165 - 1236)
  • Walter von Der Vogelweide (c. 1170 - c. 1230)
  • Alfonso X "El Sabio" (1221 - 1284)
  • Philippe de Vitry (1291 - 1361)
  • Pierre Des Molins (fl. c. 1375)
  • Ghirardello da Firenza (fl. c. 1375)
  • Lorenzo da Firenza (fl. c. 1375)
  • Jacopo da Bologna (fl. c. 1375)
  • Guillaume de Machaut (c. 1300 - 1377)
  • Francesco Landini (1325 - 1397)
  • Pycard (fl. c. 1390)
  • Franchois Lebertoul (fl. c. 1400)
  • Johannes Ciconia (c. 1335 - 1411)

Early Renaissance - 15th Century

  • Leonel Power (? - 1445)
  • Walter Frye (fl. c. 1450)
  • John Dunstable (c. 1380 - 1453)
  • Guillaume Dufay (1400 - 1474)
  • Johannes Brassart (c. 1405 - c. 1450)
  • John Browne (? - 1498)
  • Johannes Ockeghem (1420 - 1497)
  • Antoine Busnoys (1430 - 1492)
  • Richard Hygons (c. 1435 - c. 1509)
  • Josquin Des Préz (1440 - 1521)
  • Alexander Agricola (c. 1446 - 1506)
  • Edmund Turges (c. 1450 - ?)
  • Walter Lambe (c. 1450 - after 1499)
  • Robert Wylkynson (c. 1450 - 1515 or later)
  • Heinrich Isaac (c. 1450 - 1517)
  • Jacob Obrecht (1457 or 1458 - 1505)
  • Jean Mouton (1459 - 1522)
  • Gijon (fl. c. 1460 - 1500)
  • Francisco de la Torre (fl. c. 1460 - 1500)
  • Juan de Triana (fl. c. 1460 - 1500)
  • Antoine Brumel (c. 1460 - c. 1515)
  • Pierre de la Rue (1460 - 1518)
  • Robert Fayrfax (1464 - 1521)
  • Richard Davy (c. 1465 - c. 1507)
  • William Cornysh (c. 1465 - 1523)
  • Juan Del Encina (1468 - 1529)

High Renaissance - 16th Century

  • Francisco de Penalosa (1470 - 1528)
  • Luis de Narvaez (fl. c. 1540)
  • Giovanni Battista Conforti (fl. c. 1550)
  • Jean l'Heritier (1480 - 1552)
  • Gasparo Alberti (c. 1480 - c. 1560)
  • Robert Carver (1484 - 1568)
  • Nicholas Ludford (1485 - 1557)
  • Clement Janequin (1485 - 1558)
  • Ludwig Senfl (c. 1486 - c. 1543)
  • Costanzo Festa (c. 1490 - 1545)
  • John Taverner (c. 1490 - 1545)
  • Nicolas Gombert (c. 1490 - c. 1556)
  • Adrian Willaert (c. 1490 - 1562)
  • Francesco da Milano (1497 - 1543)
  • Heliodoro de Paiva (c. 1500 - 1552)
  • Philippe Verdelot (c. 1500 - before 1552)
  • Christóbal de Morales (c. 1500 - 1553)
  • Marco da l'Aquila (fl. c. 1505 - 1555)
  • Jacques Arcadelt (1505 - 1568)
  • Christopher Tye (c. 1505 - 1572)
  • Thomas Tallis (c. 1505 - 1585)
  • Bálint Bakfark (1507 - 1576)
  • Johannes Lupi (1510 - 1539)
  • Jacobus Clemens Non Papa (c. 1510 or 1515 - c. 1555 or 1556)
  • Guillaume Morlaye (c. 1510 - c. 1558)
  • Antonio de Cabezón (c. 1510 - 1566)
  • Andrea di Cannaregio Gabrieli (1510 - 1586)
  • Giuseppe Guami (1510 - 1586)
  • John Sheppard (c. 1515 - c. 1559)
  • Antonio Carreira (c. 1515 - c. 1590)
  • Cipriano de Rore (c. 1516 - c. 1565)
  • John Black (c. 1520 - 1587)
  • Vincenzo Galilei (1520 - 1591)
  • Giovanni Perluigi Palestrina (1525 - 1594)
  • Francesco Guerrero (1527 - 1599)
  • Claude Le Jeune (1528 - 1600)
  • Alberto da Ripa (1529 - 1551)
  • David Peebles (fl. c. 1530 - 1579)
  • William Mundy (c. 1530 - before 1591)
  • Rodrigo de Ceballos (c. 1530 - 1591)
  • Guillaume Boni (c. 1530 - c. 1594)
  • Fabrizzio Caroso (c. 1530 - after 1600)
  • Pietro Paolo Borrono (fl. c. 1531 - 1549)
  • Hernando Franco (1532 - 1585)
  • Roland de Lassus (1532 - 1594)
  • Claudio Merculo (1533 - 1604)
  • Francesco Soto de Langa (1534 - 1619)
  • Giaches de Wert (1535 - 1596)
  • Robert Whyte (1538 - 1574)
  • Giovanni Paolo Paladini (fl. c. 1540 - 1560)
  • Giovanni Leonardo Primavera (1540 - 1585)
  • Gioseffo Guami (1540 - 1611)
  • Hernando de Cabezón (1541 - 1602)
  • William Byrd (1543 - 1623)
  • Anthony Holborne (? - 1602)
  • Jacob Polonais (c. 1545 - 1605)
  • Tamas Luis de Victoria (c. 1548 - 1611)
  • François-Eustache Du Caurroy (1549 - 1609)

Early Baroque - Late 16th and 17th Centuries

  • Adrian Le Roy (fl. c. 1550 - 1580)
  • Leonardo Meldart Fiamengo (fl. c. 1550 - 1600)
  • Fabrizio Dentice (fl. c. 1550 - 1600)
  • Pomponio Nenna (c. 1550 - before 1613)
  • Pedro de Cristo (c. 1550 - 1618)
  • Giovanni Gabrieli (1553 - 1612)
  • Alonso Lôbo (c. 1555 - 1617)
  • Gabriele Villani (c. 1555 - 1625)
  • Manuel Rodrigues Coelho (c. 1555 - c. 1635)
  • Thomas Morley (1557 - c. 1603)
  • Conte Alfonso Fontanelli (1557 - 1622)
  • Don Carlo Gesualdo (1560 - 1613)
  • Peter Philips (1560 - 1628)
  • William Brade (1560 - 1630)
  • Dario Castello (c. 1560 - c. 1640)
  • Hieronymus Praetorius (1560 - 1629)
  • John Angus (fl. c. 1562 - 1595)
  • Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck (1562 - 1621)
  • John Bull (1562 - 1628)
  • John Dowland (1563 - 1626)
  • Sebastian Aguilera de Heredia (1565 - 1627)
  • Ascanio Mayone (1565 - 1627)
  • Giles Farnaby (1565 - 1640)
  • Duarte Lobo (1565 - 1646)
  • Alessandro Piccinini (1566 - 1638)
  • Frei Manuel Cardoso (1566 - 1650)
  • Claudio Giovanni Antonio Monteverdi (1567 - 1643)
  • Girolamo Conversi (fl. c. 1570 - 1590)
  • Diomedes Cato (c. 1570 - after 1615)
  • Giovanni Paolo Cima (1570 - 1622)
  • Alphonso Ii Ferrabosco (c. 1570 - 1628)
  • Bartolme de Selma (1570 - 1638)
  • Thomas Lupo (1571 - 1627)
  • Filips de Magalhaes (1571 - 1652)
  • Michael Praetorius (1571 - 1621)
  • Daniel Bacheler (1572 - 1618)
  • Thomas Tomkins (1572 - 1656)
  • Francisco de Peraza (fl. c. 1575 - c. 1600)
  • Thomas Weelkes (c. 1575 - 1623)
  • William Simmes (c. 1575 - c. 1625)
  • John Coprario (c. 1575 - 1626)
  • Estevao Lopes Morago (c. 1575 - after 1630)
  • Estevao de Brito (1575 - 1641)
  • Giovanni Maria Trabaci (1575 - 1647)
  • Ennemond Gaultier (1575 - 1651)
  • Francisco Correa de Arauxo (c. 1576 - 1654)
  • Thomas Ford (1580 - 1648)
  • Giovanni Girolamo Kapsberger (c. 1580 - 1651)
  • Edward, Lord Herbert of Cherbury (1582 - 1648)
  • Gregorio Allegri (1582 - 1652)
  • Thomas Simpson (1582 - 1628)
  • Robert Johnson (c. 1583 - c. 1633)
  • Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583 - 1643)
  • Orlando Gibbons (1583 - 1625)
  • Heinrich Schütz (1585 - 1672)
  • Johann Hermann Schein (1586 - 1630)
  • Samuel Scheidt (1587 - 1654)
  • Francesco Turini (1589 - 1656)
  • Nicholas Strogers (fl. c. 1590 - 1620)
  • Juan Gutierrez de Padilla (c. 1590 - 1664)
  • Jacques Gaultier (c. 1592 - after 1652)
  • John Jenkins (1592 - 1678)
  • Tarquinio Mercula (1594 - 1665)
  • Heinrich Scheidemann (1595 - 1663)
  • Biagio Marini (c. 1597 - c. 1660)
  • Luigi Rossi (1598 - 1653)
  • Bernardo Storace (fl. c. 1660)
  • John O'Keover (c. 1600 - c. 1663)
  • Etienne Moulinie (1600 - 1669)
  • Denis Gaultier (1600 - 1672)
  • Girolamo Fantini (1602 - ?)
  • William Lawes (1602 - 1645)
  • Jacques Champion de Chambonnieres (1602 - c. 1672)
  • Don Marco Uccellini (1603 - 1680)
  • François Du Fault (1604 - 1670)
  • Joao Lourenco Rebelo (1610 - 1661)
  • Luigi Battiferri (1610 - 1682)
  • Henri Dumont (1610 - 1684)
  • Michel Lambert (1610 - 1696)
  • Pablo Bruna (1611 - 1679)
  • Francesco Lopez Capillas (1612 - 1673)
  • Christopher Simpson (c. 1615 - 1669)
  • Johann Jakob Froberger (1616 - 1667)
  • Joan Cererols (1618 - 1680)
  • Matthias Weckmann (c. 1619 - 1674)
  • Johann Rosenmuller (c. 1619 - 1684)
  • Anthoni Van Noordt (1620 - 1675)
  • Matthew Locke (1621 - 1677)
  • Dietrich Becker (1623 - 1679)
  • Johann Heinrich Schmelzer (1623 - 1680)
  • Jan Adam Reincken (1623 - 1722)
  • Jacques Gallot (c. 1625 - 1696)
  • Louis Couperin (1626 - 1661)
  • Charles Mouton (1626 - 1710)
  • Johann Caspar Kerll (1627 - 1693)
  • Lelio Colista (1629 - 1680)
  • Johann Michael Nicolai (1629 - 1685)
  • Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632 - 1687)
  • Andres de Sola (1634 - 1696)
  • Sieur de Sainte-Colombe (c. 1635 - c. 1690)
  • Jean-Henri d'Anglebert (1635 - 1691)
  • Esaias Reusner (1636 - 1679)
  • John Baston (fl. c. 1700)
  • Cesare Bendinelli (fl. c. 1700)
  • Gaspard Le Roux (? - 1707)
  • Dietrich Buxtehude (1637 - 1707)
  • Bernardo Pasquini (1637 - 1710)
  • Diogo Dias Melgas (1638 - 1700)
  • Pavel Josef Vejvanovsky (1640 - 1693)
  • Carolus Harquart (1640 - 1701)
  • Alessandro Stradella (1642 - 1682)
  • Johann Anton Losy van Losymthal (c. 1643 - 1721)
  • Marc-Antoine Charpentier (1644 - 1704)
  • Heinrich Ignaz Franz von Biber (1644 - 1704)
  • Juan Bautista Jose Cabanilles (1644 - 1712)
  • John Blow (1648 - 1708)
  • Nicola Matteis (? - 1714)
  • Giovanni Maria Capelli (1648 - 1726)
  • Pieter Bustijn (? - 1729)

High Baroque - Late 17th and Early 18th Centuries

  • Petronio Franceschini (1650 - 1680)
  • Bernardo Clavijo del Castillo (fl. c. 1650 - c. 1700)
  • Antonio de Salazar (c. 1650 - 1715)
  • Johann Jacob Walther (1650 - 1717)
  • Robert de Visee (c. 1650 - c. 1725)
  • Domenico Gabrieli (1651 - 1690)
  • Arcangelo Corelli (1653 - 1713)
  • Georg Muffat (1653 - 1704)
  • Johann Pachelbel (1653 - 1706)
  • Pablo Nassarre (1654 - 1730)
  • Vincenz Lubeck (1654 - 1740)
  • Marin Marais (1656 - 1728)
  • Michel-Richard Delalande (1657 - 1726)
  • Giuseppe Torelli (1658 - 1709)
  • Henry Purcell (1659 - 1695)
  • Sybrant Van Noordt, Jr. (1660 - 1705)
  • Johann Kuhnau (1660 - 1722)
  • Sebastian Duron (1660 - 1716)
  • Alessandro Scarlatti (1660 - 1725)
  • Andre Campra (1660 - 1744)
  • Jean-Fery Rebel (1661 - 1747)
  • Georg Bohm (1661 - 1733)
  • Friederich Wilhelm Zachow (1663 - 1712)
  • Elizabeth Jacquet de la Guerre (c. 1664 - 1729)
  • Johann Christoph Pez (1664 - 1716)
  • Nikolaus Bruhns (1665 - 1697)
  • Johann Caspar Ferdinand Fischer (1665 - 1746)
  • Charles François Dieupart (1667 - 1740)
  • Antonio Lotti (1667 - 1740)
  • Michel Pignolet de Monteclair (1667 - 1737)
  • Jean Hyacinthe Theodore Gilles (1668 - 1705)
  • François Couperin (1668 - 1733)
  • Miquel Lopez (1669 - 1723)
  • Louis Marchand (1669 - 1732)
  • Antonio Caldara (1670 - 1736)
  • David Kellner (1670 - 1748)
  • Giovanni Bononcini (1670 - 1747)
  • Tomaso Albinoni (1671 - 1750)
  • Antoine Forqueray (1672 - 1745)
  • Francesco Mancini (1672 - 1737)
  • Andre-Cardinal Destouches (1672 - 1749)
  • Francesco Antonio Bonporti (1672 - 1748)
  • Jeremiah Clarke (1674 - 1707)
  • Jacques Hotteterre (1674 - 1762)
  • Michel de la Barre (c. 1675 - 1743 or 1744)
  • Johann Georg Reinhardt (1676 - 1742)
  • Louis-Nicolas Clerambault (1676 - 1749)
  • Antonio Lucio Vivaldi (1678 - 1741)
  • Johann Georg Pisendel (1678 - 1755)
  • Georg Friedrich Kauffmann (1679 - 1735)
  • Jan Dismas Zelenka (1679 - 1745)
  • Camilla de Rossi (c. 1680 - c. 1740)
  • Giuseppe Valentini (c. 1680 - 1740)
  • Jean-Baptiste Loeillet (1680 - 1730)
  • Georg Philipp Telemann (1681 - 1767)
  • Johann Mattheson (1681 - 1764)
  • Jean-François Dandrieu (1682 - 1738)
  • Jean-Joseph Mouret (1682 - 1738)
  • Christoph Graupner (1683 - 1760)
  • Johann David Heinichen (1683 - 1729)
  • Jean-Philippe Rameau (1683 - 1764)
  • Alessandro Marcello (1684 - 1750)
  • Francesco Durante (1684 - 1755)
  • Giuseppe Matteo Alberti (1685 - 1751)
  • John Reading (1685 - 1764)
  • Louis Antoine Dornel (c. 1685 - 1765)
  • George Frideric Handel (1685 - 1759)
  • Johann Sebastian Bach (1685 - 1750)
  • Giuseppe Domenico Scarlatti (1685 - 1757)
  • Le Sieur de Machy (fl. c. 1686 - 1692)
  • Benedetto Marcello (1686 - 1739)
  • Nicola Antonio Porpora (1686 - 1768)
  • Sylvius Leopold Weiss (1686 - 1750)
  • Francesco Xaverio Geminiani (1687 - 1762)
  • Johann Friedrich Fasch (1688 - 1758)
  • Giovanni Lorenzo Somis (1688 - after 1770)
  • Ferdinand Zellbell (1689 - 1765)
  • Joseph Bodin de Boismortier (1689 - 1755)
  • William Babell (c. 1690 - 1723)
  • Paolo Benedetto Bellinzini (c. 1690 - 1757)
  • Jean Jacques-Christophe Naudot (1690 - 1762)
  • Thomas Roseingrave (1690 - 1766)
  • Pietro Baldassare (1690 - 1768)
  • Francesco Barsanti (1690 - 1772)
  • Gottfried Heinrich Stolzel (1690 - 1749)
  • Francesco Maria Veracini (1690 - 1768)
  • Gottlieb Theophil Muffat (1690 - 1770)
  • Unico Wilhelm Van Wassenaer (1692 - 1766)
  • Giuseppe Tartini (1692 - 1770)
  • Christoph Forster (1693 - 1745)
  • Johann Samuel Endler (1694 - 1762)
  • Louis-Claude Daquin (1694 - 1772)
  • Johan Helmich Roman (1694 - 1758)
  • Giuseppe Sammartini (1695 - 1750)
  • Pietro-Antonio Locatelli (1695 - 1764)
  • Pierre Fevrier (1696 - 1764)
  • Konrad Friedrich Hurlebusch (1696 - 1765)
  • Johann Melchior Molter (1696 - 1765)
  • Maurice Greene (1696 - 1755)
  • Johann Joachim Quantz (1697 - 1773)
  • Jean Marie l'aine Léclair (1697 - 1764)
  • François Francoeur (1698 - 1787)
  • Joseph Gibbs (1698 - 1788)
  • Johann Adolph Hasse (1699 - 1783)

Classical/Romantic - Late 18th Century

  • Giovanni Benedetto Platti (c. 1700 - 1763)
  • Thomas Chilcot (c. 1700 - 1766)
  • Michel Blavet (1700 - 1748)
  • Giovanni Battista Sammartini (1701 - 1775)
  • Johan Joachim Agrell (1701 - 1765)
  • John Travers (1703 - 1758)
  • Johann Gottlieb Graun (1703 - 1771)
  • Joseph-Hector Fiocco (1703 - 1741)
  • Giovanni-Battista Pescetti (c. 1704 - c. 1766)
  • Carl Heinrich Graun (1704 - 1759)
  • Jose Antonio Carlos de Seixas (1704 - 1742)
  • František Antonín Ignac Tuma (1704 - 1774)
  • Joseph-Nicholas-Pancrace Royer (1705 - 1755)
  • Benjamin Franklin (1706 - 1790)
  • Baldassare Galuppi (1706 - 1785)
  • Carlo Cecere (1706 - 1761)
  • Pietro Domenico Paradisi (1707 - 1791)
  • Jean Barriere (1707 - 1747)
  • Johann Baptist Georg Neruda (1708 - 1780)
  • Johann Adolph Scheibe (1708 - 1776)
  • Johann Gottlieb Janitsch (1708 - 1763)
  • Christoph Schaffrath (1709 - 1763)
  • Michel Corrette (1709 - 1795)
  • Charles Avison (1709 - 1770)
  • František Benda (1709 - 1786)
  • Franz Xaver Richter (1709 - 1789)
  • Jean-Noel Hamal (1709 - 1778)
  • Salvatore Lanzetti (c. 1710 - c. 1780)
  • John Parry (1710 - 1782)
  • Johann Georg Rollig (1710 - 1790)
  • Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (1710 - 1736)
  • Thomas Augustine Arne (1710 - 1778)
  • Arvid Niclas von Hopken (1710 - 1778)
  • Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (1710 - 1784)
  • William Boyce (1711 - 1779)
  • Ignaz Jakob Holzbauer (1711 - 1783)
  • John Hebden (1712 - 1765)
  • John Stanley (1712 - 1786)
  • Frederich The Great (1712 - 1786)
  • Johann Ludwig Krebs (1713 - 1780)
  • Per Brant (1714 - 1767)
  • Gottfried August Homilius (1714 - 1785)
  • Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (1714 - 1788)
  • Christoph Willibald Ritter von Gluck (1714 - 1787)
  • Jacques Duphly (1715 - 1789)
  • Georg Christoph Wagenseil (1715 - 1777)
  • James Nares (1715 - 1783)
  • Hinrich Philip Johnsen (1716 - 1779)
  • Gaspard Fritz (1716 - 1783)
  • Felice De' Giardini (1716 - 1796)
  • Rudolf Straube (1717 - 1785)
  • Georg Matthias Monn (1717 - 1750)
  • Johann Wenzel Anton Stamitz (1717 - 1757)
  • Carl Heinrich Biber (1718 - 1749)
  • Johan Nicolaas Lentz (1719 or 1720 - 1782)
  • Antoine Mahaut (1719 - after 1775)
  • Johann Georg Leopold Mozart (1719 - 1787)
  • Johann Christoph Altnikol (1719 - 1759)
  • Anders Wesstrom (1720 - 1781)
  • Thomas Vincent (1720 - 1783)
  • Johann Friedrich Agricola (1720 - 1774)
  • Pieter Hellendaal (1721 - 1799)
  • Johann Philipp Kirnberger (1721 - 1783)
  • John Garth (1722 - 1810)
  • Johann Ernst Bach (1722 - 1777)
  • Pietro Nardini (1722 - 1793)
  • Jiri Antonín Benda (1722 - 1795)
  • Christiaan Ernst Graaf (1723 - 1803)
  • Carl Friedrich Abel (1723 - 1787)
  • Giovanni Battista Cirri (1724 - 1808)
  • William Walond (1725 - 1770)
  • Joseph Franz Xaver Dominik Stalder (1725 - 1765)
  • Josef Starzer (1726 - 1787)
  • Claude-Benigne Balbastre (1727 - 1799)
  • Armand-Louis Couperin (1727 - 1789)
  • Johann Gottlieb Goldberg (1727 - 1756)
  • Johann Wilhelm Hertel (1727 - 1789)
  • Johann Gottfried Muthel (1728 - 1788)
  • Franz Xaver Pokorny (1728 - 1794)
  • Padre Antonio Francisco Javier Jose Soler (1729 - 1783)
  • John Burton (1730 - 1785)
  • Antonio Maria Gasparo Gioachino Sacchini (1730 - 1786)
  • Capel Bond (1730 - 1790)
  • František Xaver Dusek (1731 - 1799)
  • Franz Xaver Brixi (1732 - 1771)
  • Franz Joseph Haydn (1732 - 1809)
  • Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach (1732 - 1795)
  • Johann Christian Fischer (1733 - 1800)
  • Johann Philipp Christian Schulze (1733 - 1827)
  • François-Joseph Gossec (1734 - 1829)
  • Johann Ernst Altenburg (1734 - 1801)
  • Karl Leopold Rollig (1735 - 1804)
  • Jean Gabriel Meder (c. 1735 - 1805)
  • Johann Christian Bach (1735 - 1782)
  • Johann Georg Albrechtsberger (1736 - 1809)
  • Josef Myslivecek (1737 - 1781)
  • Johann Michael Haydn (1737 - 1806)
  • Carlo Besozzi (1738 - 1791)
  • Philip Hayes (1738 - 1797)
  • Constantin Reindl (1738 - 1799)
  • Jakub Golabek (1739 - 1789)
  • Joseph Boulogne, Chevalier de Saint-George (c. 1739 - 1799)
  • Jan Krtitel Vanhal (1739 - 1813)
  • Karl Ditters von Dittersdorf (1739 - 1799)
  • Johann Schobert (1740 - 1767)
  • Giovanni Paisiello (1740 - 1816)
  • Anton Zimmermann (1741 - 1781)
  • Andre-Ernest-Modeste Gretry (1741 - 1813)
  • Giovanni Battista Marella (fl. c. 1800)
  • Johann Gottlieb Naumann (1741 - 1801)
  • Johann Baptist Krumpholtz (1742 - 1790)
  • Luigi Boccherini (1743 - 1805)
  • Francesco Petrini (1744 - 1819)
  • Marianne Anna Catharina Martinez (1744 - 1812)
  • Maddelena Laura Lombardini Sirmen (1745 - 1818)
  • Johann Peter Saloman (1745 - 1815)
  • Carl Philipp Stamitz (1745 - 1801)
  • Jan Vaclav Stich-Punto (1746 - 1803)
  • Jan Adam František Mica (1746 - 1811)
  • Johann Friedrich Peter (1746 - 1813)
  • Giuseppe Maria Gioachino Cambini (1746 - 1825)
  • James Hook (1746 - 1827)
  • Nicolas Scherrer (c. 1747 - 1821)
  • Johann Abraham Peter Schulz (1747 - 1800)
  • Leopold Jan Antonín Kozeluh (1747 - 1818)
  • Joseph Fiala (1748 - 1816)
  • Theodor Freiherr von Schacht (1748 - 1823)
  • Domenico Cimarosa (1749 - 1801)
  • Antonio Rosetti (1750 - 1792)
  • Johann Matthias Sperger (1750 - 1812)
  • Antonio Salieri (1750 - 1825)
  • Anton Thadaus Johann Nepomuk Stamitz (1750 - 1796)
  • Johann Franz Xaver Sterkel (1750 - 1817)
  • Dmitry Stepanovich Bortniansky (1751 - 1825)
  • Johann Samuel Schroeter (1752 - 1788)
  • John Marsh (1752 - 1828)
  • Muzio Clementi (1752 - 1832)
  • Edward Jones (1752 - 1824)
  • Ludwig August Lebrun (1752 - 1790)
  • Justin Heinrich Knechtl (1752 - 1817)
  • Johann Friedrich Reichardt (1752 - 1814)
  • Anton Stadler (1753 - 1812)
  • Etienne Solere (1753 - 1817)
  • Jean-Baptiste Sebastien Breval (1753 - 1823)
  • Bazvli Bohdanowicz (1754 - 1819)
  • Franz Anton Hoffmeister (1754 - 1812)
  • Giovanni Battista Viotti (1755 - 1824)
  • Federigo Fiorillo (1755 - 1823)
  • Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart (1756 - 1791)
  • Thomas Linley (1756 - 1778)
  • Joseph Martin Kraus (1756 - 1792)
  • Pavel Vranicky (1756 - 1808)
  • Ignaz Joseph Pleyel (1757 - 1831)
  • François Devienne (1759 - 1803)
  • Franz Vincenz Krommer (1759 - 1831)
  • Mateo Antonio Perez Albeniz (1760 - 1831)
  • Jan Ladislav Dussek (1760 - 1812)
  • Maria Luigi Carlo Zenobio Salvatore Cherubini (1760 - 1842)
  • Jose Galles (1761 - 1836)
  • Antonín Vranicky (1761 - 1820)
  • Jan Nepomuchene Wanski (1762 - after 1800)
  • Franz Wilhelm Tausch (1762 - 1817)
  • Adalbert Gyrowetz (1763 - 1850)
  • Domenico Dragonetti (1763 - 1846)
  • Franz Danzi (1763 - 1826)
  • Etienne-Nicolas Mehul (1763 - 1817)
  • Franz Xaver S�ssmayr (1766 - 1803)
  • Samuel Wesley (1766 - 1837)
  • Anton Eberl (1766 - 1807)
  • Bedřich Dionys Weber (1766 - 1842)
  • Rodolphe Kreutzer (1766 - 1831)
  • Filippo Gragnani (1767 - 1812)
  • Franz Alexander Possinger (1767 - 1827)
  • Leonhard von Call (1767 - 1815)
  • Andreas Jacob Romberg (1767 - 1821)
  • Carlos Baguer (1768 - 1808)
  • Johann Georg Heinrich Backofen (1768 - 1839)
  • Francesco Molino (1768 - 1847)
  • Carel Anton Fodor (1768 - 1846)
  • Hyacinthe Jadin (1769 - 1800)
  • Ferdinando Carulli (1770 - 1841)
  • Anton Reicha (1770 - 1836)
  • Friedrich Witt (1770 - 1836)
  • Peter Hansel (1770 - 1831)
  • Ludwig Van Beethoven (1770 - 1827)
  • John Baptist Cramer (1771 - 1858)
  • Thomas Bystrom (1772 - 1839)
  • Johan Willem Wilms (1772 - 1847)
  • Antonio Casimir Cartellieri (1772 - 1807)
  • Prince Louis Ferdinand Of Prussia (1772 - 1806)
  • Carl Ludwig Lithander (1773 - 1843)
  • François-Rene Gebauer (1773 - 1844)
  • Vaclav Jan Krtitel Tomasek (1774 - 1850)
  • Thomas Busby (1775 - 1838)
  • William Crotch (1775 - 1847)
  • François de Paule Jacques Raymond de Fossa (1775 - 1849)
  • Bernhard Henrik Crusell (1775 - 1838)
  • François-Adrien Boieldieu (1775 - 1834)
  • Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann (1776 - 1822)
  • Johann Evangelist Fuss (1777 - 1819)
  • Fredrik Emanuel Lithander (1777 - 1823)
  • William Russell (1777 - 1813)
  • Fernando Sor (1778 - 1839)
  • Sigismund Ritter von Neukomm (1778 - 1858)
  • Johann Nepomuk Hummel (1778 - 1837)
  • Franciszek Lessel (1780 - 1838)
  • François-Joseph Dizi (1780 - c. 1840)
  • Conradin Kreutzer (1780 - 1849)
  • Jean-François-Joseph Naderman (1781 - 1835)
  • Louis-François Dauprat (1781 - 1868)
  • Mauro Giuseppe Sergio Pantaleo Giuliani (1781 - 1829)
  • Anton Diabelli (1781 - 1858)
  • Daniel-François-Esprit Auber (1782 - 1871)
  • John Field (1782 - 1837)
  • Niccolo Paganini (1782 - 1840)
  • Justus Johann Friedrich Dotzauer (1783 - 1860)
  • Ferdinand Ries (1784 - 1838)
  • François-Joseph Fetis (1784 - 1871)
  • Ludwig Spohr (1784 - 1859)
  • Dionisio Aguado (1784 - 1849)
  • Andre Georges Louis Onslow (1784 - 1853)
  • Vincenzo Gambaro (1785 - 1824)
  • Karol Kazimierz Kurpinski (1785 - 1857)
  • Friedrich Wilhelm Michael Kalkbrenner (1785 - 1849)
  • Franz Xaver Schnyder von Wartensee (1786 - 1868)
  • Daniel Friedrich Rudolph Kuhlau (1786 - 1832)
  • George Frederick Pinto (1786 - 1806)
  • Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst Freiherr von Weber (1786 - 1826)
  • Archduke Of Austria Rudolph (1788 - 1831)
  • Friedrich Silcher (1789 - 1860)
  • Luigi Legnani (1790 - 1877)
  • Karol Lipinski (1790 - 1861)
  • Louis-Ferdinand Herold (1791 - 1833)
  • Carl Czerny (1791 - 1857)
  • Jan Vaclav Hugo Vorisek (1791 - 1825)
  • Franz Xaver Mozart (1791 - 1844)
  • Peter Joseph von Lindpaintner (1791 - 1856)
  • Andreas Spath (1792 - 1876)
  • Gioachino Antonio Rossini (1792 - 1868)
  • Philip Cipriani Hambly Potter (1792 - 1871)
  • Anton Bernhard Furstenau (1792 - 1852)
  • Isaak-Ignaz Moscheles (1794 - 1870)
  • Heinrich August Marschner (1795 - 1861)
  • Giuseppe Saverio Raffaele Mercadante (1795 - 1870)
  • Franz Adolf Berwald (1796 - 1868)
  • Franz Peter Schubert (1797 - 1828)
  • Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (1797 - 1848)
  • Carl Gottlieb Reissiger (1798 - 1859)
  • Henri-Jerome Bertini (1798 - 1876)

Romantic - Early 19th Century

  • Alois Beerhalter (1800 - 1852)
  • Marco Aurelio Zani de Ferranti (1800 - 1878)
  • Johannes Bernardus Van Bree (1801 - 1857)
  • Johann Wenzel Kalliwoda (1801 - 1866)
  • Joseph Franz Karl Lanner (1801 - 1843)
  • Vincenzo Bellini (1801 - 1835)
  • Charles-Auguste de Beriot (1802 - 1870)
  • Wilhelm Bernard Molique (1802 - 1869)
  • Franz Lachner (1803 - 1890)
  • Adolphe-Charles Adam (1803 - 1856)
  • Louis-Hector Berlioz (1803 - 1869)
  • Giacomo Panizza (1804 - 1860)
  • Leopold Eugen Mechura (1804 - 1870)
  • Johann Strauss I (1804 - 1849)
  • Jeanne-Louise Farrenc (1804 - 1875)
  • Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (1804 - 1857)
  • Théodore Labarre (1805 - 1870)
  • Johann Peter Emilius Hartmann (1805 - 1900)
  • Fanny Cacilia Mendelssohn Hensel (1805 - 1847)
  • Juan Crisostomo Jacobo Antonio de Arriaga (1806 - 1826)
  • Napoleon Coste (1806 - 1883)
  • Johann Kaspar Mertz (1806 - 1856)
  • Adrien-François Servais (1807 - 1866)
  • Elias Parish-Alvers (1808 - 1849)
  • Auguste-Joseph Franchomme (1808 - 1884)
  • Jacob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn (1809 - 1847)
  • Frederic Chopin (1810 - 1849)
  • Felicien Cesar David (1810 - 1876)
  • Robert Alexander Schumann (1810 - 1856)
  • Carl Otto Ehrenfried Nicolai (1810 - 1849)
  • Samuel Sebastian Wesley (1810 - 1876)
  • Ferenc Erkel (1810 - 1893)
  • Ludwig Schuncke (1810 - 1834)
  • Vincenz Lachner (1811 - 1893)
  • Charles Louis Ambroise Thomas (1811 - 1896)
  • Franz Liszt (1811 - 1886)
  • Ferdinand Hiller (1811 - 1885)
  • Sigismond Thalberg (1812 - 1871)
  • Julius Rietz (1812 - 1877)
  • Alexander Dargomyzhsky (1813 - 1869)
  • Sir George Alexander Macfarren (1813 - 1887)
  • Stephen Heller (1813 - 1888)
  • Wilhelm Richard Wagner (1813 - 1883)
  • Giuseppe Fortunino Frencesco Verdi (1813 - 1901)
  • Charles-Henri Valentin Alkan (1813 - 1888)
  • Heinrich Wilhelm Ernst (1814 - 1865)
  • Adolph von Henselt (1814 - 1889)
  • Mihaly Mosonyi (1814 - 1870)
  • Herman Severin Lovenskiold (1815 - 1870)
  • Friedrich Robert Volkmann (1815 - 1883)
  • Henry Hugh Pierson (1815 - 1873)
  • Johannes Verhulst (1816 - 1891)
  • Sir William Sterndale Bennett (1816 - 1875)
  • Manuel Saumell (1817 - 1870)
  • Niels Wilhelm Gade (1817 - 1890)
  • Henry Charles Litolff (1818 - 1891)
  • Charles François Gounod (1818 - 1893)
  • Felix Godefroid (1818 - 1897)
  • Franz von Suppé (1819 - 1895)
  • Stanislaw Moniuszko (1819 - 1872)
  • Jacques Offenbach (1819 - 1880)
  • Louis Theodore Gouvy (1819 - 1898)
  • Clara Wieck Schumann (1819 - 1896)
  • Henri Vieuxtemps (1820 - 1881)
  • Gustaf Adolf Heinze (1820 - 1904)
  • Friedrich Kiel (1821 - 1885)
  • Albert Franz Doppler (1821 - 1883)
  • Giovanni Bottesini (1821 - 1889)
  • Giulio Regondi (1822 - 1872)
  • Josef Joachim Raff (1822 - 1882)
  • Cesar-Auguste-Jean-Guillaume-Hubert Franck (1822 - 1890)
  • Edouard-Victoire-Antoine Lalo (1823 - 1892)
  • Edmund Thomas Chipp (1823 - 1886)
  • Bedřich Friedrich Smetana (1824 - 1884)
  • Carl Heinrich Carsten Reinecke (1824 - 1910)
  • Anton Joseph Bruckner (1824 - 1896)
  • Johann Strauss II (1825 - 1899)
  • George Frederick Bristow (1825 - 1898)
  • John Thomas (1826 - 1913)
  • Stephen Collins Foster (1826 - 1864)
  • Josef Strauss (1827 - 1870)
  • Woldemar Bargiel (1828 - 1897)
  • Louis Moreau Gottschalk (1829 - 1869)
  • Albert Hermann Dietrich (1829 - 1908)
  • Anton Rubinstein (1829 - 1894)
  • Peter Arnold Heise (1830 - 1879)
  • Hans Bronsart von Schellendorf (1830 - 1913)
  • Karl Goldmark (1830 - 1915)
  • Theodor Leschetizky (1830 - 1915)
  • Joseph Joachim (1831 - 1907)
  • Fredrick Vilhelm Ludwig Norman (1831 - 1885)
  • Charles Lecocq (1832 - 1918)
  • Johannes Brahms (1833 - 1897)
  • Alexander Porfirievich Borodin (1833 - 1887)
  • James Waterson (1834 - 1893)
  • Albert Heinrich Zabel (1834 - 1910)
  • Julius Reubke (1834 - 1858)
  • Peter Benoit (1834 - 1901)
  • Amilcare Ponchielli (1834 - 1886)
  • Cesar Cui (1835 - 1918)
  • Eduard Strauss (1835 - 1916)
  • Henryk Wieniawski (1835 - 1880)
  • Charles-Camille Saint-Saëns (1835 - 1921)
  • Clement-Philibert-Léo Delibes (1836 - 1891)
  • Sir William Schwenck Gilbert (1836 - 1911)
  • Mili Alexeyevich Balakirev (1837 - 1910)
  • Felix Alexandre Guilmant (1837 - 1911)
  • Charles-Emile Waldteufel (1837 - 1915)
  • Max Bruch (1838 - 1920)
  • Georges Alexandre-Cesar-Leopold Bizet (1838 - 1875)
  • Alexis Vicomte de Castillon (1838 - 1873)
  • John Knowles Paine (1839 - 1906)
  • Dudley Buck (1839 - 1909)
  • Josef Gabriel Ritter von Rheinberger (1839 - 1901)
  • Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (1839 - 1881)
  • Piotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840 - 1893)
  • Louis Brassin (1840 - 1884)
  • Johan Severin Svendsen (1840 - 1911)
  • Hermann Goetz (1840 - 1876)
  • Donato Lovreglio (1841 - 1907)
  • Alexis-Emmanuel Chabrier (1841 - 1894)
  • Antonín Dvořák (1841 - 1904)
  • Karl Tausig (1841 - 1871)
  • Antoníno Pasculli (1842 - 1924)
  • Jules-Emile-Frederic Massenet (1842 - 1912)
  • Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan (1842 - 1900)
  • Asger Hamerik (1843 - 1923)
  • Carl Michael Ziehrer (1843 - 1922)
  • Heinrich von Herzogenberg (1843 - 1900)
  • Edvard Hagerup Grieg (1843 - 1907)
  • Jan Levoslav Bella (1843 - 1936)
  • Charles-Marie-Jean-Albert Widor (1844 - 1937)
  • Pablo Martin Meliton de Sarasate (1844 - 1908)
  • Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844 - 1908)
  • Claude Paul Taffanel (1844 - 1908)
  • Friedrich Nietzsche (1844 - 1900)
  • Hendrik Waelput (1845 - 1885)
  • Iosif Ivanovici (1845 - 1902)
  • Alphonse Hasselmans (1845 - 1912)
  • Gabriel-Urbain Fauré (1845 - 1924)
  • Alexander Andreyevich Arkhangelsky (1846 - 1924)
  • Robert Fuchs (1847 - 1927)
  • Ludwig Philipp Scharwenka (1847 - 1917)
  • Ignatio Cervantes (1847 - 1905)
  • Sir Alexander Campbell Mackenzie (1847 - 1935)
  • Augusta Mary Anne Holmes (1847 - 1903)
  • Sir Charles Hubert Hastings Parry (1848 - 1918)
  • Benjamin Louis Paul Godard (1849 - 1895)

Romantic/Modern - Late 19th Century

  • Louise Aldolpha Le Beau (1850 - 1927)
  • Iver Holter (1850 - 1941)
  • Franz Xaver Scharwenka (1850 - 1924)
  • Alexander Sergeievich Taneyev (1850 - 1918)
  • Karel Komzak (1850 - 1905)
  • Zdeněk Fibich (1850 - 1900)
  • Tomas Breton y Hernandez (1850 - 1923)
  • Jan Blockx (1851 - 1912)
  • Paul-Marie-Theodore-Vincent d'Indy (1851 - 1931)
  • Frederick Corder (1852 - 1932)
  • Sir Frederic Hymen Cowen (1852 - 1935)
  • Hans Huber (1852 - 1921)
  • Sir Charles Villiers Stanford (1852 - 1924)
  • Wilhelm Posse (1852 - 1925)
  • Francesco Tarrega (1852 - 1909)
  • Arthur William Foote (1853 - 1937)
  • Maria Teresa Carreno (1853 - 1917)
  • Andre-Charles-Prosper Messager (1853 - 1929)
  • Juliusz Zarebski (1854 - 1885)
  • Paul Pabst (1854 - 1897)
  • Leoš Janáček (1854 - 1928)
  • Alexander Alexandrovich Kopylov (1854 - 1911)
  • Moritz Moszkowski (1854 - 1925)
  • Engelbert Humperdinck (1854 - 1921)
  • John Philip Sousa (1854 - 1932)
  • George Whitefield Chadwick (1854 - 1931)
  • Amedee-Ernest Chausson (1855 - 1899)
  • Anatoli Liadov (1855 - 1914)
  • Giuseppe Martucci (1856 - 1909)
  • Johann Christian Sinding (1856 - 1941)
  • George Templeton Strong (1856 - 1948)
  • Sergei Ivanovich Taneyev (1856 - 1915)
  • Sir Edward William Elgar (1857 - 1934)
  • Cecile Chaminade (1857 - 1944)
  • Nikolai Artzibushev (1858 - 1937)
  • Georges-Adolphe Hue (1858 - 1948)
  • Eugène Ysaÿe (1858 - 1931)
  • Hans Rott (1858 - 1884)
  • Catharinus Elling (1858 - 1942)
  • Jenő Hubay (1858 - 1937)
  • Giacomo Puccini (1858 - 1924)
  • Victor Herbert (1859 - 1924)
  • Nikolai Alexandrovich Sokolov (1859 - 1922)
  • Mikhail Mihaylovich Ippolitov-Ivanov (1859 - 1935)
  • Sergei Mikhailovich Liapunov (1859 - 1924)
  • Josef Bohuslav Foerster (1859 - 1951)
  • Hugo Wolf (1860 - 1903)
  • Emil Nikolaus von Reznicek (1860 - 1945)
  • Isaac Albeniz (1860 - 1909)
  • Gustav Mahler (1860 - 1911)
  • Ignacy Jan Paderewski (1860 - 1941)
  • Edward Alexander MacDowell (1860 - 1908)
  • Charles Martin Tornow Loeffler (1861 - 1935)
  • Anton Stepanovich Arensky (1861 - 1906)
  • Frederick (Fritz) Theodor Albert Delius (1862 - 1934)
  • Sir Edward German (1862 - 1936)
  • Maria François Maurice Emmanuel (1862 - 1938)
  • Achille-Claude Debussy (1862 - 1918)
  • Alphons Diepenbrock (1862 - 1936)
  • Leon Boellmann (1862 - 1897)
  • Bernhard Stavenhagen (1862 - 1914)
  • Felix Mikhailovich Blumenfeld (1863 - 1931)
  • Joseph Wihtol (1863 - 1948)
  • Henri-Constant-Gabriel Pierné (1863 - 1937)
  • Horatio William Parker (1863 - 1919)
  • Johan Halvorsen (1864 - 1935)
  • Eugene Francis Charles d'Albert (1864 - 1932)
  • Louis Glass (1864 - 1936)
  • Richard Strauss (1864 - 1949)
  • Joseph Guy Marie Ropartz (1864 - 1955)
  • Alberto Nepomuceno (1864 - 1920)
  • Alexander Tikhonovich Gretchaninov (1864 - 1956)
  • Harvey Worthington Loomis (1865 - 1930)
  • Preston Ware Orem (1865 - 1938)
  • Theophile Ysaye (1865 - 1918)
  • August de Boeck (1865 - 1937)
  • Lucien-Denis-Gabriel-Alberic Magnard (1865 - 1914)
  • Carl August Nielsen (1865 - 1931)
  • Paul Gilson (1865 - 1942)
  • Alexander Konstantinovich Glazunov (1865 - 1936)
  • Paul Dukas (1865 - 1935)
  • Jean (Johan) Julius Christian Sibelius (1865 - 1957)
  • Vasily Sergeyevich Kalinnikov (1866 - 1901)
  • Ferruccio Dante Michelangelo Benvenuto Busoni (1866 - 1924)
  • Erik Alfred-Leslie Satie (1866 - 1925)
  • Charles Wood (1866 - 1926)
  • Francesco Cilèa (1866 - 1950)
  • Jules Mouquet (1867 - 1946)
  • Desire Paque (1867 - 1939)
  • Enrique Granados (1867 - 1916)
  • Amy Marcy Cheney Beach (1867 - 1944)
  • Charles Koechlin (1867 - 1950)
  • Lodewijk Mortelmans (1868 - 1952)
  • Hamish Maccunn (1868 - 1916)
  • Max von Schillings (1868 - 1933)
  • Sir Granville Ransome Bantock (1868 - 1946)
  • Charles Sanford Skilton (1868 - 1941)
  • Henry Franklin Belknap Gilbert (1868 - 1928)
  • Albert Charles Paul Marie Roussel (1869 - 1937)
  • Hans Erich Pfitzner (1869 - 1949)
  • Sigismond Stojowski (1869 - 1946)
  • Siegfried Wagner (1869 - 1930)
  • Guillaume Lekeu (1870 - 1894)
  • Charles Arnould Tournemire (1870 - 1939)
  • Leopold Godowsky (1870 - 1938)
  • Louis Vierne (1870 - 1937)
  • Alfred Hill (1870 - 1960)
  • Vítězslav Novak (1870 - 1949)
  • Wilhelm Stenhammar (1871 - 1927)
  • Alexander von Zemlinsky (1871 - 1942)
  • Henry Kimball Hadley (1871 - 1937)
  • Alexander Nikolaevich Scriabin (1872 - 1915)
  • Hugo Alfv�n (1872 - 1960)
  • Deodat de Severac (1872 - 1921)
  • Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872 - 1958)
  • Rudolf Tobias (1873 - 1918)
  • Max Reger (1873 - 1916)
  • Sergei Vasilievitch Rachmaninoff (1873 - 1943)
  • Jean-Jules Aimable Roger-Ducasse (1873 - 1954)
  • Henri Rabaud (1873 - 1949)
  • Daniel Gregory Mason (1873 - 1953)
  • Marie-Alphonse-Nicolas-Joseph Jongen (1873 - 1953)
  • Alexander Nikolsky (1874 - 1943)
  • Josef Suk (1874 - 1935)
  • Reynaldo Hahn (1874 - 1947)
  • Arnold Franz Walter Schoenberg (1874 - 1951)
  • Gustav Theodore Holst (1874 - 1934)
  • Charles Edward Ives (1874 - 1954)
  • Franz Schmidt (1874 - 1939)
  • Reinhold Glière (1875 - 1956)
  • Erkki Gustav Melartin (1875 - 1937)
  • Joseph Maurice Ravel (1875 - 1937)
  • Albert William Ketèlbey (1875 - 1959)
  • Samuel Coleridge-Taylor (1875 - 1912)
  • Mikolajus Konstantinas Ciurlionis (1875 - 1911)
  • William Yeates Hurlstone (1876 - 1906)
  • Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari (1876 - 1948)
  • Havergal Brian (1876 - 1972)
  • John Alden Carpenter (1876 - 1951)
  • Flor Alpaerts (1876 - 1954)
  • Manuel de Falla (1876 - 1946)
  • Mieczysław Karlowicz (1876 - 1909)
  • Pavel Chesnokov (1877 - 1944)
  • Thomas Frederick Dunhill (1877 - 1946)
  • Sergei Bortkiewicz (1877 - 1952)
  • Arthur Farwell (1877 - 1952)
  • Blair Fairchild (1877 - 1933)
  • Ernst von Dohnanyi (1877 - 1960)
  • Armand Marsick (1877 - 1959)
  • Roger Cuthbert Quilter (1877 - 1953)
  • Henry Balfour Gardiner (1877 - 1950)
  • Rutland Boughton (1878 - 1960)
  • Franz Schreker (1878 - 1934)
  • Josef Holbrooke (1878 - 1958)
  • M. Tournier (1879 - 1951)
  • Otakar Ostrcil (1879 - 1935)
  • Frank Bridge (1879 - 1941)
  • Philippe Gaubert (1879 - 1941)
  • Ottorino Respighi (1879 - 1936)
  • John Ireland (1879 - 1962)
  • Cyril Meir Scott (1879 - 1970)
  • Sir Herbert Hamilton Harty (1879 - 1941)
  • Nicolai Karlovich Medtner (1880 - 1951)
  • Ernest Bloch (1880 - 1959)
  • Paul Le Flem (1881 - 1984)
  • Béla Bartók (1881 - 1945)
  • Nicolai Yakovlevich Miaskovsky (1881 - 1950)
  • George Enescu (1881 - 1955)
  • Charles Wakefield Cadman (1881 - 1946)
  • Ignaz Friedman (1882 - 1948)
  • Gian Francesco Malipiero (1882 - 1973)
  • Haydn Wood (1882 - 1959)
  • Artur Schnabel (1882 - 1951)
  • Igor Stravinsky (1882 - 1971)
  • Percy Aldridge Grainger (1882 - 1961)
  • Karol Szymanowski (1882 - 1937)
  • Manuel Maria Ponce (1882 - 1948)
  • Joaquín Turina (1882 - 1949)
  • Zóltan Kodály (1882 - 1967)
  • Sir George Dyson (1883 - 1964)
  • Sir Arnold Edward Trevor Bax (1883 - 1953)
  • Anton Friedrich Wilhelm von Webern (1883 - 1945)
  • Arthur Meulemans (1884 - 1966)
  • Charles Tomlinson Griffes (1884 - 1920)
  • Artur Lemba (1885 - 1963)
  • Alban Berg (1885 - 1935)
  • George Sainton Kaye Butterworth (1885 - 1916)
  • Joseph Deems Taylor (1885 - 1966)
  • Wilhelm Furtwängler (1886 - 1954)
  • Michel Brusselmans (1886 - 1960)
  • Jef Van Hoof (1886 - 1959)
  • Eric Coates (1886 - 1957)
  • Rebecca Clarke (1886 - 1979)
  • Kurt Schwitters (1887 - 1948)
  • Oskar Lindberg (1887 - 1955)
  • Leevi Madetoya (1887 - 1947)
  • Heitor Villa-Lôbos (1887 - 1959)
  • Heino Eller (1887 - 1970)
  • Kurt Atterberg (1887 - 1974)
  • Alexei Vladimirovich Stanchinsky (1888 - 1914)
  • Grigoras Dinicu (1889 - 1949)
  • Cecil Armstrong Gibbs (1889 - 1960)
  • Jacques Ibert (1890 - 1962)
  • Bohuslav Martinů (1890 - 1959)
  • Maurice Schoemaker (1890 - 1964)
  • Federico Moreno Torroba (1891 - 1982)
  • Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofieff (1891 - 1953)
  • Marinus de Jong (1891 - 1984)
  • Sir Arthur Edward Drummond Bliss (1891 - 1975)
  • Yrjo Kilpinen (1892 - 1959)
  • Arthur Oscar Honegger (1892 - 1955)
  • Ferde Ferdinand Rudolph von Grofe (1892 - 1972)
  • Germaine Tailleferre (1892 - 1983)
  • Laszlo Lajtha (1892 - 1963)
  • Kaikhosru Shapurji Sorabji (1892 - 1988)
  • Darius Milhaud (1892 - 1974)
  • Herbert Howells (1892 - 1983)
  • Martian Negrea (1893 - 1973)
  • Andres Segovia (1893 - 1987)
  • Sir Eugene Goossens (1893 - 1962)
  • Rued Immanuel Langgaard (1893 - 1952)
  • Juliette Marie Olga Lili Boulanger (1893 - 1918)
  • Jean Absil (1893 - 1974)
  • Walter Hamor Piston (1894 - 1976)
  • Ervín Schulhoff (1894 - 1942)
  • Robert Russell Bennett (1894 - 1981)
  • Peter Warlock (1894 - 1930)
  • Ernest John Moeran (1894 - 1950)
  • Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco (1895 - 1968)
  • William Grant Still (1895 - 1978)
  • Gordon Jacob (1895 - 1984)
  • Walter Gieseking (1895 - 1956)
  • Paul Hindemith (1895 - 1963)
  • Howard Hanson (1896 - 1981)
  • Virgil Thomson (1897 - 1989)
  • Quincy Porter (1897 - 1966)
  • Erich Wolfgang Korngold (1897 - 1957)
  • Alexandre Tansman (1897 - 1986)
  • Roy Harris (1898 - 1979)
  • Hanns Eisler (1898 - 1962)
  • George Gershwin (1898 - 1937)
  • Francis Poulenc (1899 - 1963)
  • Alexander Tcherepnin (1899 - 1977)
  • Randall Thompson (1899 - 1984)
  • Edward Kennedy Ellington (1899 - 1974)
  • Carlos Chavez (1899 - 1978)
  • William Levi Dawson (1899 - 1990)
  • Silvestre Revueltas (1899 - 1940)

20th Century

  • Michael Dewar Head (1900 - 1976)
  • Kurt Weill (1900 - 1950)
  • Aaron Copland (1900 - 1990)
  • Hans Erich Apostel (1901 - 1972)
  • Marcel Poot (1901 - 1988)
  • Edmund Rubbra (1901 - 1986)
  • Gerald Finzi (1901 - 1956)
  • Joaquín Rodrigo (1901 -)
  • Maurice Durufle (1902 - 1986)
  • Sir William Turner Walton (1902 - 1983)
  • William Joseph (Billy) Mayerl (1902 - 1959)
  • Richard Rodgers (1902 - 1979)
  • Sir Lennox Berkeley (1903 - 1989)
  • Aram Il'yich Khachaturian (1903 - 1978)
  • Vittorio Giannini (1903 - 1966)
  • John Antill (1904 - 1986)
  • Richard Addinsell (1904 - 1977)
  • Dmitri Borisovich Kabalevsky (1904 - 1987)
  • Nathan Milstein (1904 - 1992)
  • Sir Michael Kemp Tippett (1905 -)
  • Ernesto Halffter (1905 - 1989)
  • Eugene Bozza (1905 - 1991)
  • Alan Rawsthorne (1905 - 1971)
  • Matyas Seiber (1905 - 1960)
  • Eduard Tubin (1905 - 1982)
  • Daniel Sternefeld (1905 - 1986)
  • Dag Ivar Wiren (1905 - 1986)
  • William Alwyn (1905 - 1985)
  • Benjamin Frankel (1906 - 1973)
  • Dmitri Shostakovich (1906 - 1975)
  • Paul Creston (1906 - 1985)
  • Mozart Camargo Guarnieri (1907 - 1993)
  • Elizabeth Maconchy (1907 -)
  • Miklós Rózsa (1907 -)
  • Oedoen Partos (1907 - 1977)
  • Frank Perkins (1908 -)
  • Hugo Distler (1908 - 1942)
  • Howard Ferguson (1908 -)
  • Olivier Messiaen (1908 - 1992)
  • Paul Constantinescu (1909 - 1963)
  • Vagn Holmboe (1909 -)
  • Julius Chajes (1910 - 1985)
  • Samuel Barber (1910 - 1981)
  • H. Owen Reed (1910 -)
  • Ronald Binge (1910 - 1979)
  • William Howard Schuman (1910 - 1992)
  • Werner Wolf Glaser (1910 -)
  • Emanuel Elenescu (1911 -)
  • Jehan Alain (1911 - 1940)
  • Alan Hovhaness (1911 - 2000)
  • Bernard Herrmann (1911 - 1975)
  • Gian Carlo Menotti (1911 -)
  • Gustav Allan Pettersson (1911 - 1980)
  • Carlos Guastavino (1912 -)
  • Jean Françaix (1912 -)
  • Norman Dello Joio (1913 -)
  • Witold Lutoslavski (1913 - 1994)
  • George Lloyd (1913 -)
  • Lord Benjamin Britten (1913 - 1976)
  • Morton Gould (1913 -)
  • William Southcombe Lloyd Webber (1914 - 1982)
  • Harold Truscott (1914 - 1992)
  • Carlos Surinach (1915 -)
  • David Diamond (1915 -)
  • Douglas Lilburn (1915 -)
  • Henri Dutilleux (1916 -)
  • Bernard Stevens (1916 - 1983)
  • Alberto Ginastera (1916 - 1983)
  • Robert Joseph Farnon (1917 -)
  • Bernd Alois Zimmermann (1918 - 1970)
  • George Rochberg (1918 -)
  • Leonard Bernstein (1918 - 1990)
  • Vaclav Nelhybel (1919 -)
  • Mieczysław Weinberg (1919 - 1996)
  • Mircea Basarab (1921 -)
  • Robert Simpson (1921 -)
  • Roger Nixon (1921 -)
  • Malcolm Arnold (1921 -)
  • Pierre Petit (1922 -)
  • Kaljo Raid (1922 -)
  • James Clifton Williams (1923 - 1976)
  • Peter Mennin (1923 - 1983)
  • Günter Braun (1924 -)
  • Ida Presti (1924 - 1967)
  • Ernest Tomlinson (1924 -)
  • Peter Lamb (1925 -)
  • Kirke Mechem (1925 -)
  • Julian Orbon (1925 -)
  • Ivan Jirko (1926 - 1978)
  • Michael Gielen (1927 -)
  • Robert Muczynski (1929 -)
  • Roger Matton (1929 -)
  • Kenneth Leighton (1929 - 1988)
  • Ron Nelson (1929 -)
  • Veljo Tormis (1930 -)
  • Rodion Konstantinovich Shchedrin (1932 -)
  • Henryk Mikolaj Gorecki (1933 -)
  • John McLeod (1934 -)
  • William Mathias (1934 - 1992)
  • Alfred Schnittke (1934 -)
  • Arvo Part (1935 -)
  • Nicholas Maw (1935 -)
  • Milan Kymlicka (1936 -)
  • Richard Rodney Bennett (1936 -)
  • Marlos Nobre (1939 -)
  • Joanna Bruzdowicz (1943 -)
  • Robin Holloway (1943 -)
  • John Tavener (1944 -)
  • John Rutter (1945 -)
  • Emil Tabakov (1947 -)
  • Andrew Lloyd Webber (1948 -)
  • Pierre Gallant (1951 -)
  • Reinhard Febel (1952 -)
  • Robert Saxton (1953 -)
Trumpet
Sours: http://www.classical.net/music/composer/dates/comp9.php

10 centuries of classical music Composers

  1. soclassiq
  2. 10 centuries of classical music

 

Handel or Palestrina? Grieg or Vivaldi? It is difficult for inquiring minds to tackle such abundant fields as classical music and opera, covering 10 centuries of history: there are thousands of composers. Making a selection of musicians, such as a “top 10” for example, is a difficult and subjective exercise. A musical selection is often the expression of personal preferences or artistic opinions, very interesting but also very different according to critics or musicologists, or simply influenced by the context: will an English composer not be instinctively privileged by an English critic?

For example: in France, Charles Gounod, a 19th century French composer, is more easily mentioned than the Norwegian Edvard Grieg, who is more recognized in the world.

Composers

from the 11th to the 21st century


a. Timeline

b. Top 10, the most famous

c. Some others also well-known


The information presented below (timeline, top 10, alphabetical index) is absolutely neutral. They are the result of a strictly quantitative analysis, based only on global and independent sources. They were treated without favouring any particular musician or excluding any artist deemed less relevant by elitism, conformism or for any other reason.

Timeline of classical music composers

Whoever wants to discover classical music or opera does not always have an experienced music lover, an expert or an educator at his or her side to support and guide him or her in these fields. So : Handel (German, later British Baroque composer) or Palestrina (Italian Renaissance composer) ? Schubert (Austrian composer) or Rossini (Italian opera composer) ? However, the knowledge available about musicians is enormous. It was processed to select the 10, 25, 50... most popular composers around the world. And this objectively, and for the first time (soclassiq exclusivity).

Composers rendered as a timeline to bring a little perspective:

ComposersConductorsLyrical singersPerformersWorldwideEuropeNorth AmericaSouth AmericaAsiaOceaniaAfrica2022

Top 10 classical musiccomposers

Who are these greatest composers, the most famous ? The works of these musician have shaped the history of classical music and lyric art. There are those you probably know, or at least by name and the others.

Here are these 10 classical music composers, renowned artists from around the world:

What about the others? 25, 50 or more?

Summarizing to 10 musician names such a wide and diverse field may seem extreme or too simplistic for those who know classical music and lyrical art well, for those who can easily name 50 or more classical music composers. Verdi, Brahms, Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Bizet, Debussy, Liszt, Haydn...

At this time, soclassiq has listed more than 19000 composers. So here is a selection of some composers, widely recognized around the world:

Note:

  • This selection may include highly reputed artists and musicians who have occasionally devoted themselves to classical music and not exclusively.
  • It may also include composers who have been or are concert performers, some more renowned for their careers than for the work they have left behind.

Johann Christian <strong>Bach</strong>Johann Christian Bach10 centuries of classical music
1735-1782 (Classical)
Performer & Composer

Carl Philipp Emanuel <strong>Bach</strong>Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach10 centuries of classical music
1714-1788 (Classical)
Performer & Composer

Johann Sebastian <strong>Bach</strong>Johann Sebastian Bach10 centuries of classical music
1685-1750 (Baroque)
Conductor, Performer & Composer

MasterpiecesComplete works

Mily <strong>Balakirev</strong>Mily Balakirev10 centuries of classical music
1837-1910 (Romantic)
Conductor, Performer & Composer

Samuel <strong>Barber</strong>Samuel Barber10 centuries of classical music
1910-1981 (20th century)
Performer & Composer

MasterpiecesComplete works

Béla <strong>Bartók</strong>Béla Bartók10 centuries of classical music
1881-1945 (20th century)
Performer & Composer

MasterpiecesComplete works

Ludwig van <strong>Beethoven</strong>Ludwig van Beethoven10 centuries of classical music
1770-1827 (Classical)
Conductor, Performer & Composer

MasterpiecesComplete works

Vincenzo <strong>Bellini</strong>Vincenzo Bellini10 centuries of classical music
1801-1835 (Romantic)
Composer

Alban <strong>Berg</strong>Alban Berg10 centuries of classical music
1885-1935 (20th century)
Performer & Composer

MasterpiecesComplete works

Hector <strong>Berlioz</strong>Hector Berlioz10 centuries of classical music
1803-1869 (Romantic)
Conductor, Performer & Composer

MasterpiecesComplete works

Leonard <strong>Bernstein</strong>Leonard Bernstein10 centuries of classical music
1918-1990 (20th century)
Conductor, Performer & Composer

Heinrich <strong>Biber</strong>Heinrich Biber10 centuries of classical music
1644-1704 (Baroque)
Performer & Composer

Hildegard of <strong>Bingen</strong>Hildegard of Bingen10 centuries of classical music
1098-1179 (Medieval)
Composer

Complete works

Georges <strong>Bizet</strong>Georges Bizet10 centuries of classical music
1838-1875 (Romantic)
Conductor, Performer & Composer

MasterpiecesComplete works

Luigi <strong>Boccherini</strong>Luigi Boccherini10 centuries of classical music
1743-1805 (Classical)
Conductor, Performer & Composer

Complete works

Andrea <strong>Bocelli</strong>Andrea Bocelli10 centuries of classical music
age 63 (20th century)
Lyrical singer, Performer & Composer

Alexander <strong>Borodin</strong>Alexander Borodin10 centuries of classical music
1833-1887 (Romantic)
Performer & Composer

MasterpiecesComplete works

Lili <strong>Boulanger</strong>Lili Boulanger10 centuries of classical music
1893-1918 (20th century)
Composer

Nadia <strong>Boulanger</strong>Nadia Boulanger10 centuries of classical music
1887-1979 (20th century)
Conductor, Performer & Composer

Pierre <strong>Boulez</strong>Pierre Boulez10 centuries of classical music
1925-2016 (20th century)
Conductor, Performer & Composer

MasterpiecesComplete works

Johannes <strong>Brahms</strong>Johannes Brahms10 centuries of classical music
1833-1897 (Romantic)
Conductor, Performer & Composer

MasterpiecesComplete works

Benjamin <strong>Britten</strong>Benjamin Britten10 centuries of classical music
1913-1976 (20th century)
Conductor, Performer & Composer

MasterpiecesComplete works

Max <strong>Bruch</strong>Max Bruch10 centuries of classical music
1838-1920 (Romantic)
Conductor & Composer

Anton <strong>Bruckner</strong>Anton Bruckner10 centuries of classical music
1824-1896 (Romantic)
Performer & Composer

MasterpiecesComplete works

Hans von <strong>Bülow</strong>Hans von Bülow10 centuries of classical music
1830-1894 (Romantic)
Conductor, Performer & Composer

Dietrich <strong>Buxtehude</strong>Dietrich Buxtehude10 centuries of classical music
1637-1707 (Baroque)
Performer & Composer

William <strong>Byrd</strong>William Byrd10 centuries of classical music
1543-1623 (Renaissance)
Performer & Composer

Complete works


Sours: https://soclassiq.com/en/classical_music_timeline/10_centuries_of_classical_music/
  1. My network tv directv channel
  2. Catholic churches in reykjavik iceland
  3. Accident on 95 north virginia
  4. Nassau county family court lawyers
  5. 8 billie eilish chords ukulele

The great Classical composers

  1. soclassiq
  2. Composers
  3. The great Classical composers

 

Telemann or Rossini? Scarlatti or Gluck? It is difficult for inquiring minds to tackle such abundant fields as classical music and opera, covering 10 centuries of history: there are thousands of composers. Making a selection of musicians, such as a “top 10” for example, is a difficult and subjective exercise. A musical selection is often the expression of personal preferences or artistic opinions, very interesting but also very different according to critics or musicologists, or simply influenced by the context: will an English composer not be instinctively privileged by an English critic?

For example: in France, Charles Gounod, a 19th century French composer, is more easily mentioned than the Norwegian Edvard Grieg, who is more recognized in the world.

Composers

classical era


a. Timeline

b. Top 10, the most famous

c. Some others also well-known


The information presented below (timeline, top 10, alphabetical index) is absolutely neutral. They are the result of a strictly quantitative analysis, based only on global and independent sources. They were treated without favouring any particular musician or excluding any artist deemed less relevant by elitism, conformism or for any other reason.

Timeline of classical music composers, between 1730 and 1820 (classical era)

Whoever wants to discover classical music or opera does not always have an experienced music lover, an expert or an educator at his or her side to support and guide him or her in these fields. So : Telemann (German composer) or Rossini (Italian opera composer) ? Haydn (Austrian composer) or Chopin (Polish composer and pianist) ? However, the knowledge available about musicians is enormous. It was processed to select the 10, 25, 50... most popular composers around the world, for those living or having lived between 1730 and 1820 (classical era). And this objectively, and for the first time (soclassiq exclusivity).

Composers rendered as a timeline to bring a little perspective:

ComposersConductorsLyrical singersPerformers2022

Top 10 classical musiccomposers for the years 1730-1820

Who are these greatest composers, the most famous over the 1730-1820 era? The works of these musician have shaped the history of classical music and lyric art. There are those you probably know, or at least by name and the others.

Here are these 10 classical music composers, renowned artists from around the world:

What about the others? 25, 50 or more?

Summarizing to 10 musician names such a wide and diverse field may seem extreme or too simplistic for those who know classical music and lyrical art well, for those who can easily name 50 or more classical music composers. Liszt, Mozart, Offenbach, Bach, Bach, Verdi, Schubert...

At this time, soclassiq has listed more than 19000 composers. So here is a selection of some composers for the classical era, widely recognized around the world:

Note:

  • This selection may include highly reputed artists and musicians who have occasionally devoted themselves to classical music and not exclusively.
  • It may also include composers who have been or are concert performers, some more renowned for their careers than for the work they have left behind.
Sours: https://soclassiq.com/en/classical_music_timeline/The_great_Classical_composers/ts/classical/
Classical Music for Brain Power - Beethoven, Mozart, Bach...

Classical Music Composer Timeline

Whether you are a student of classical music or just a lover of the art, this timeline will give you a good overview of the main characteristics of each period, along with its most famous composers. As for the definition of classical music, we use it here to mean any non pop, jazz, or other modern form of music, which rose out of the Renaissance to eventually standardize—and then experiment with—such forms as the symphony, concerto, and sonata.

Renaissance Period: 1400–1600

The word Renaissance means rebirth, and this period is exemplified by an interest in all things secular, including Greco/Roman culture, scientific exploration, and travel to distant lands. Composers, too, were interested in breaking free from religious strictures by secularizing formerly religious forms to create more intricate and harmonious compositions. This was a period of great musical inventiveness, as witness the rise of the cantus firmus, chorale, French chansons, and madrigals. Notable composers include:

  • Guillaume Dufay (1400–1474)
  • Johannes Ockeghem (1420–1497)
  • Josquin Des Prez (c. 1450–1521)
  • Alexander Agricola (c. 1446–1506)
  • Jean Mouton (1459–1522)
  • Pierre de la Rue (1460–1518)
  • Robert Fayrfax (1464–1521)
  • Francisco de Peñalosa (c. 1470–1528)
  • Robert Carver (c. 1485–1570)
  • Clément Janequin (1485–1558)
  • Francesco Canova da Milano (1497–1543)
  • Jacques Arcadelt (c. 1507–1568)
  • Thomas Tallis (c. 1505–1585)
  • Giovanni Perluigi Palestrina (1525–1594)
  • Francesco Guerrero (1527–1599)
  • Orlando de Lassus (1532–1594)
  • Francesco Soto de Langa (1534–1619)
  • Gioseffo Guami (1542–1611)
  • William Byrd (1549–1623)
  • François-Eustache Du Caurroy (1549–1609)

Baroque Period: 1600–1750

The Baroque is considered the late phase of the Renaissance, marked by a more intricate and even outlandish visual style. In some ways the word applies to the music as well. Compositions became more homophonic, meaning based on one melody with harmonic support coming from a keyboard player. Tonality was divided into major and minor. This period is also characterized by the rise of the fugue, a type of polyphonic composition based on a principal theme (subject) and melodic lines (counterpoint) that imitate the principal theme, and of the opera, the first of which were composed around 1600. The most famous composer of the Baroque is Johann Sebastian Bach, who might also be considered the greatest composer of any period.

  • Hieronymus Praetorius (1560–1629)
  • John Dowland (1563–1626)
  • Frei Manuel Cardoso (1566–1650)
  • Claudio Giovanni Antonio Monteverdi (1567–1643)
  • Thomas Simpson (1582–1628)
  • Petronio Franceschini (1650–1680)
  • Arcangelo Corelli (1653–1713)
  • Henry Purcell (1659–1695)
  • Alessandro Scarlatti (1660–1725)
  • Tomaso Albinoni (1671–1750)
  • Antonio Lucio Vivaldi (1678–1741)
  • Georg Philipp Telemann (1681–1767)
  • Jean-Philippe Rameau (1683–1764)
  • Giuseppe Matteo Alberti (1685–1751)
  • George Frideric Handel (1685–1759)
  • Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750)
  • Giuseppe Domenico Scarlatti (1685–1757)
  • Johann Friedrich Fasch (1688–1758)
  • Jean Jacques-Christophe Naudot (1690–1762)
  • Johann Adolph Hasse (1699–1783)

Classical Period: 1750–1820

This is the period of the "heavy hitters" of classical music: Mozart, Beethoven, Paganini, Rossini, etc., who gave the world some of the greatest music ever composed. This was a time when musicians returned to more ordered forms and strict compositional "rules and regulations" to govern their pursuit of musical perfection.

  • Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (1710–1784)
  • Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (1714–1788)
  • Christoph Willibald Ritter von Gluck (1714–1787)
  • Johann Georg Leopold Mozart (1719–1787)
  • Johann Ernst Bach (1722–1777)
  • Johann Gottlieb Goldberg (1727–1756)
  • Franz Joseph Haydn (1732–1806)
  • Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach (1732–1795)
  • Johann Christian Bach (1735–1782)
  • Antonio Salieri (1750–1825)
  • Muzio Clementi (1752–1832)
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–1791)
  • Franz Xaver Sussmayr (1766–1803)
  • Bedřich Dionys Weber (1766–1842)
  • Ludwig Van Beethoven (1770–1827)
  • Niccolo Paganini (1782–1840)
  • Carl Maria von Weber (1786 - 1826)
  • Gioachino Antonio Rossini (1792–1868)
  • Franz Peter Schubert (1797–1828)
  • Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (1797–1848)

Romantic Period: 1820-1900

An extremely fertile period, the Romantic era of music is expressive, dramatic, and orchestral—composed and played with a level of drama and emotionality not seen in previous eras. Think Wagner's stirring "Ride of the Valkyries" or Tchaikovsky's triumphant "1812 Overture." Composers touched on themes such as romantic love, the supernatural, and even death. Some drew inspiration from the history and folk songs of their native country, while others incorporated foreign influences.

  • Vincenzo Bellini (1801–1835)
  • Louis-Hector Berlioz (1803–1869)
  • Johann Strauss I (1804–1849)
  • Jacob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn (1809–1847)
  • Frederic Chopin (1810–1849)
  • Robert Alexander Schumann (1810–1856)
  • Franz Liszt (1811–1886)
  • Wilhelm Richard Wagner (1813–1883)
  • Giuseppe Fortunino Frencesco Verdi (1813–1901)
  • Charles François Gounod (1818–1893)
  • Jacques Offenbach (1819–1880)
  • Clara Wieck Schumann (1819–1896)
  • Cesar Franck (1822–1890)
  • Anton Joseph Bruckner (1824–1896)
  • Johann Strauss II (1825–1899)
  • Johannes Brahms (1833–1897)
  • Eduard Strauss (1835–1916)
  • Georges Bizet (1838–1875)
  • Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (1839–1881)
  • Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840–1893)
  • Antonín Dvorak (1841–1904)
  • Jules Massenet (1842–1912)
  • Edvard Hagerup Grieg (1843–1907)
  • Gabriel-Urbain Fauré (1845–1924)
  • Sir Edward William Elgar (1857– 1934)
  • Giacomo Puccini (1858–1924)
  • Gustav Mahler (1860–1911)
  • Achille-Claude Debussy (1862–1918)
  • Richard Strauss (1864–1949)
  • Jean Sibelius (1865–1957)
  • Erik Satie (1866–1925)
  • Siegfried Wagner (1869–1930)
  • Alexander Nikolaevich Scriabin (1872–1915)
  • Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872–1958)
  • Sergei Vasilievitch Rachmaninoff (1873–1943)
  • Arnold Franz Walter Schoenberg (1874–1951)
  • Gustav Theodore Holst (1874–1934)
  • Charles Edward Ives (1874–1954)
  • Joseph Maurice Ravel (1875–1937)
  • Béla Bartók (1881–1945)
  • Artur Schnabel (1882–1951)
  • Igor Stravinsky (1882–1971)
  • Zóltan Kodály (1882–1967)
  • Anton Friedrich Wilhelm von Webern (1883–1945)
  • Alban Berg (1885–1935)
  • Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofieff (1891–1953)

20th Century: 1900–present

Classical music didn't die in the 20th century so much as reinvent itself. No one trend or style in particular dominates, and composers ranged from the relatively traditional, like Shostakovich and Schuman, to the outrageously experimental, like Karlheinz Stockhausen. Many composers followed the dominant artistic style of the period, from Impressionism to Futurism to Expressionism to Post-Modernism. Composers like George Gershwin and Andrew Lloyd Webber not only pushed the envelop of classic structure but can also be considered the grandfathers of American pop music.

  • George Gershwin (1898–1937)
  • Francis Poulenc (1899–1963)
  • Edward Kennedy Ellington (1899–1974)
  • Maurice Durufle (1902–1986)
  • Sir Lennox Berkeley (1903–1989)
  • Eduard Tubin (1905–1982)
  • Dmitri Shostakovich (1906–1975)
  • Olivier Messiaen (1908–1992)
  • Samuel Barber (1910–1981)
  • William Howard Schuman (1910–1992)
  • Gian Carlo Menotti (1911–2007)
  • Jean Françaix (1912–)
  • Benjamin Britten (1913–1976)
  • Bernd Alois Zimmermann (1918–1970)
  • Ernest Tomlinson (1924–2015)
  • Peter Lamb (1925–2013)
  • Karlheinz Stockhausen (1928–2007)
  • William Mathias (1934–1992)
  • Arvo Part (1935–)
  • John Rutter (1945–)
  • Andrew Lloyd Webber (1948–)
Sours: https://www.liveabout.com/classical-music-composer-timeline-723894

Timeline bach mozart, beethoven

Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven was born in 1770, therefore, he was 14 years younger than Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. During Mozart’s time as a child prodigy, the wife of a valet in Koblenz, Mrs. Van Beethoven, attended one of the concerts of Wolfgang and Nannerl. She was enthralled and had a dream. Should she ever have a child herself, it would be great to see it grow up as a child genius. Her dream was to come true. Ludwig van Beethoven, her son, became one of the greatest composers of his time.

Years later, while Mozart was facing a rough time after his return from Prague and was in dire need of money once again, Ludwig van Beethoven came to Vienna in 1787. He was sixteen and wanted to take lessons from Haydn and Mozart. Who knows what might have happened, had Beethoven’s mother not suddenly fallen ill, forcing him to return to Bonn after just two weeks. Mozart, who was working on “Don Giovanni” and was deeply worried for his fatally ill father, did not receive Beethoven, let alone give him lessons. When Beethoven returned to Vienna much later, Mozart was already dead.

Mozart, Beethoven – and the Symphony as Musical Genre

One of the greatest achievements of Mozart and Beethoven was the development of the symphony into a distinct, sophisticated and almost dramatic art form. Originally designed to serve as an introduction for a concerto or opera, both geniuses along with Joseph Haydn elevated the symphony to the genre we know today. 

Sours: http://www.mozart.com/en/timeline/life/mozart-and-beethoven/
Bach, Mozart, Beethoven - Who was the best? What is your favorite composer? - Classical Music

The Classical Period

The dates of the Classical period in Western music are generally accepted as being between about 1750 and 1820. However, the term classical music is used in a colloquial sense as a synonym for Western art music, which describes a variety of Western musical styles from the ninth century to the present, and especially from the sixteenth or seventeenth to the nineteenth. This article is about the specific period from 1730 to 1820.[1]

The Classical period falls between the Baroque and the Romantic periods. The best-known composers from this period are Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart,Ludwig van Beethoven, and Franz Schubert; other notable names include Luigi Boccherini, Muzio Clementi, Antonio Soler, Antonio Salieri, François Joseph Gossec,Johann Stamitz, Carl Friedrich Abel, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, and Christoph Willibald Gluck. Ludwig van Beethoven is also regarded either as a Romantic composer or a composer who was part of the transition to the Romantic.

Franz Schubert is also something of a transitional figure, as are Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Mauro Giuliani, Friedrich Kuhlau, Fernando Sor, Luigi Cherubini, Jan Ladislav Dussek, and Carl Maria von Weber. The period is sometimes referred to as the era ofViennese Classic or Classicism (German: Wiener Klassik), since Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn, Antonio Salieri, and Ludwig van Beethoven all worked at some time in Vienna, and Franz Schubert was born there.

 

Classicist door in Olomouc, The Czech Republic. An example of Classicist architecture.

Classicism

In the middle of the 18th century, Europe began to move toward a new style in architecture, literature, and the arts, generally known asClassicism. This style sought to emulate the ideals of Classical antiquity, especially those of Classical Greece. While still tightly linked to court culture and absolutism, with its formality and emphasis on order and hierarchy, the new style was also “cleaner”. It favored clearer divisions between parts, brighter contrasts and colors, and simplicity rather than complexity. In addition, the typical size of orchestras began to increase.

The remarkable development of ideas in “natural philosophy” had already established itself in the public consciousness. In particular,Newton’s physics was taken as a paradigm: structures should be well-founded in axioms and be both well-articulated and orderly. This taste for structural clarity began to affect music, which moved away from the layered polyphony of the Baroque period toward a style known as homophony, in which the melody is played over a subordinate harmony. This move meant that chords became a much more prevalent feature of music, even if they interrupted the melodic smoothness of a single part. As a result, the tonal structure of a piece of music became more audible.

The new style was also encouraged by changes in the economic order and social structure. As the 18th century progressed, the nobility became the primary patrons of instrumental music, while public taste increasingly preferred comic opera. This led to changes in the way music was performed, the most crucial of which was the move to standard instrumental groups and the reduction in the importance of the continuo—the rhythmic and harmonic ground of a piece of music, typically played by a keyboard (harpsichord or organ) and potentially by several other instruments. One way to trace the decline of the continuo and its figured chords is to examine the disappearance of the term obbligato, meaning a mandatory instrumental part in a work of chamber music. In Baroque compositions, additional instruments could be added to the continuo according to preference; in Classical compositions, all parts were specifically noted, though not always notated, so the term “obbligato” became redundant. By 1800, it was practically extinct.

Economic changes also had the effect of altering the balance of availability and quality of musicians. While in the late Baroque a major composer would have the entire musical resources of a town to draw on, the forces available at a hunting lodge were smaller and more fixed in their level of ability. This was a spur to having primarily simple parts to play, and in the case of a resident virtuoso group, a spur to writing spectacular, idiomatic parts for certain instruments, as in the case of the Mannheim orchestra. In addition, the appetite for a continual supply of new music, carried over from the Baroque, meant that works had to be performable with, at best, one rehearsal. Indeed, even after 1790 Mozart writes about “the rehearsal”, with the implication that his concerts would have only one.

Since polyphonic texture was no longer the main focus of music (excluding the development section) but rather a single melodic line with accompaniment, there was greater emphasis on notating that line for dynamics and phrasing. The simplification of texture made such instrumental detail more important, and also made the use of characteristic rhythms, such as attention-getting opening fanfares, the funeral march rhythm, or the minuet genre, more important in establishing and unifying the tone of a single movement.

Forms such as the concerto and sonata were more heavily defined and given more specific rules, whereas the symphony was created in this period (this is popularly attributed to Joseph Haydn). The concerto grosso (a concerto for more than one musician) began to be replaced by the solo concerto (a concerto featuring only one soloist), and therefore began to place more importance on the particular soloist’s ability to show off. There were, of course, some concerti grossi that remained, the most famous of which being Mozart’s Sinfonia Concertante for Violin and Viola in E flat Major.

A string quartet. From left to right: violin 1, violin 2, cello, viola

Main characteristics

Classical music has a lighter, clearer texture than Baroque music and is less complex. It is mainly homophonic—melody above chordal accompaniment (but counterpoint is by no means forgotten, especially later in the period). It also make use of Style gallant in the classical period which was drawn in opposition to the strictures of the Baroque style, emphasizing light elegance in place of the Baroque’s dignified seriousness and impressive grandeur.

Variety and contrast within a piece became more pronounced than before. Variety of keys, melodies, rhythms and dynamics (using crescendo, diminuendo and sforzando), along with frequent changes of mood and timbre were more commonplace in the Classical period than they had been in the Baroque. Melodies tended to be shorter than those of Baroque music, with clear-cut phrases and clearly marked cadences. The orchestra increased in size and range; the harpsichord continuo fell out of use, and the woodwind became a self-contained section. As a solo instrument, the harpsichord was replaced by the piano (or fortepiano). Early piano music was light in texture, often with Alberti bass accompaniment, but it later became richer, more sonorous and more powerful.

Importance was given to instrumental music—the main kinds were sonata, trio, string quartet, symphony, concerto, serenade and divertimento. Sonata form developed and became the most important form. It was used to build up the first movement of most large-scale works, but also other movements and single pieces (such as overtures).

 

History

The Baroque/Classical transition c. 1730–1760

Gluck, detail of a portrait by Joseph Duplessis, dated 1775 (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna)

At first the new style took over Baroque forms—the ternary da capo aria and the sinfonia and concerto—but composed with simpler parts, more notated ornamentation and more emphatic division into sections. However, over time, the new aesthetic caused radical changes in how pieces were put together, and the basic layouts changed. Composers from this period sought dramatic effects, striking melodies, and clearer textures. The Italian composer Domenico Scarlatti was an important figure in the transition from Baroque to Classical. His unique compositional style is strongly related to that of the early Classical period. He is best known for composing more than five hundred one-movement keyboard sonatas. In Spain, Antonio Soler also produced valuable keyboard sonatas, more varied in form than those of Scarlatti, with some pieces in three or four movements.

Baroque music generally uses many harmonic fantasies and does not concentrate that much on the structure of the musical piece, musical phrases and motives. In the classical period, the harmonic functions are simpler. However, the structure of the piece, the phrases and motives, are much more important in the tunes than in the Baroque period.

Another important break with the past was the radical overhaul of opera by Christoph Willibald Gluck, who cut away a great deal of the layering and improvisational ornament and focused on the points of modulation and transition. By making these moments where the harmony changes more focal, he enabled powerful dramatic shifts in the emotional color of the music. To highlight these episodes he used changes in instrumentation, melody, and mode. Among the most successful composers of his time, Gluck spawned many emulators, one of whom was Antonio Salieri. Their emphasis on accessibility brought huge successes in opera, and in vocal music more widely: songs, oratorios, and choruses. These were considered the most important kinds of music for performance and hence enjoyed greatest success in the public estimation.

The phase between the Baroque and the rise of the Classical, with its broad mixture of competing ideas and attempts to unify the different demands of taste, economics and “worldview”, goes by many names. It is sometimes called GalantRococo, or pre-Classical, or at other times early Classical[citation needed]. It is a period where some composers still working in the Baroque style flourish, though sometimes thought of as being more of the past than the present—Bach, Handel, and Telemann all composed well beyond the point at which the homophonic style is clearly in the ascendant. Musical culture was caught at a crossroads: the masters of the older style had the technique, but the public hungered for the new. This is one of the reasons C. P. E. Bach was held in such high regard: he understood the older forms quite well and knew how to present them in new garb, with an enhanced variety of form.

Circa 1750–1775

Haydn portrait by Thomas Hardy, 1792

By the late 1750s there were flourishing centers of the new style in Italy, Vienna, Mannheim, and Paris; dozens of symphonies were composed and there were bands of players associated with theatres. Opera or other vocal music was the feature of most musical events, with concertos and symphonies (arising from the overture) serving as instrumental interludes and introductions for operas and church services. Over the course of the Classical period, symphonies and concertos developed and were presented independently of vocal music.

The “normal” ensemble—a body of strings supplemented by winds—and movements of particular rhythmic character were established by the late 1750s in Vienna. However, the length and weight of pieces was still set with some Baroque characteristics: individual movements still focused on one “affect” or had only one sharply contrasting middle section, and their length was not significantly greater than Baroque movements. There was not yet a clearly enunciated theory of how to compose in the new style. It was a moment ripe for a breakthrough.

Many consider this breakthrough to have been made by C. P. E. Bach, Gluck, and several others. Indeed, C. P. E. Bach and Gluck are often considered founders of the Classical style.

The first great master of the style was the composer Joseph Haydn. In the late 1750s he began composing symphonies, and by 1761 he had composed a triptych (MorningNoon, and Evening) solidly in the contemporary mode. As a vice-Kapellmeister and later Kapellmeister, his output expanded: he composed over forty symphonies in the 1760s alone. And while his fame grew, as his orchestra was expanded and his compositions were copied and disseminated, his voice was only one among many.

While some suggest that he was overshadowed by Mozart and Beethoven, it would be difficult to overstate Haydn’s centrality to the new style, and therefore to the future of Western art music as a whole. At the time, before the pre-eminence of Mozart or Beethoven, and with Johann Sebastian Bach known primarily to connoisseurs of keyboard music, Haydn reached a place in music that set him above all other composers except perhaps George Frideric Handel. He took existing ideas, and radically altered how they functioned—earning him the titles “father of the symphony” and “father of the string quartet”.

One of the forces that worked as an impetus for his pressing forward was the first stirring of what would later be called Romanticism—the Sturm und Drang, or “storm and stress” phase in the arts, a short period where obvious emotionalism was a stylistic preference. Haydn accordingly wanted more dramatic contrast and more emotionally appealing melodies, with sharpened character and individuality. This period faded away in music and literature: however, it influenced what came afterward and would eventually be a component of aesthetic taste in later decades.

The Farewell Symphony, No. 45 in F♯ Minor, exemplifies Haydn’s integration of the differing demands of the new style, with surprising sharp turns and a long adagio to end the work. In 1772, Haydn completed his Opus 20 set of six string quartets, in which he deployed the polyphonic techniques he had gathered from the previous era to provide structural coherence capable of holding together his melodic ideas. For some, this marks the beginning of the “mature” Classical style, in which the period of reaction against late Baroque complexity yielded to a period of integration Baroque and Classical elements.

Circa 1775–1790

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, posthumous painting by Barbara Krafft in 1819

Haydn, having worked for over a decade as the music director for a prince, had far more resources and scope for composing than most and also the ability to shape the forces that would play his music. This opportunity was not wasted, as Haydn, beginning quite early on his career, sought to press forward the technique of building ideas in music. His next important breakthrough was in the Opus 33 string quartets (1781), in which the melodic and the harmonic roles segue among the instruments: it is often momentarily unclear what is melody and what is harmony. This changes the way the ensemble works its way between dramatic moments of transition and climactic sections: the music flows smoothly and without obvious interruption. He then took this integrated style and began applying it to orchestral and vocal music.

Haydn’s gift to music was a way of composing, a way of structuring works, which was at the same time in accord with the governing aesthetic of the new style. However, a younger contemporary, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, brought his genius to Haydn’s ideas and applied them to two of the major genres of the day: opera, and the virtuoso concerto. Whereas Haydn spent much of his working life as a court composer, Mozart wanted public success in the concert life of cities. This meant opera, and it meant performing as a virtuoso. Haydn was not a virtuoso at the international touring level; nor was he seeking to create operatic works that could play for many nights in front of a large audience. Mozart wanted both. Moreover, Mozart also had a taste for more chromatic chords (and greater contrasts in harmonic language generally), a greater love for creating a welter of melodies in a single work, and a more Italianate sensibility in music as a whole. He found, in Haydn’s music and later in his study of the polyphony of Bach, the means to discipline and enrich his gifts.

The Mozart family circa 1780. The portrait on the wall is of Mozart’s mother.

Mozart rapidly came to the attention of Haydn, who hailed the new composer, studied his works, and considered the younger man his only true peer in music. In Mozart, Haydn found a greater range of instrumentation, dramatic effect and melodic resource; the learning relationship moved in two directions.

Mozart’s arrival in Vienna in 1780 brought an acceleration in the development of the Classical style. There Mozart absorbed the fusion of Italianate brilliance and Germanic cohesiveness that had been brewing for the previous 20 years. His own taste for brilliances, rhythmically complex melodies and figures, long cantilena melodies, and virtuoso flourishes was merged with an appreciation for formal coherence and internal connectedness. It is at this point that war and inflation halted a trend to larger orchestras and forced the disbanding or reduction of many theater orchestras. This pressed the Classical style inwards: toward seeking greater ensemble and technical challenge—for example, scattering the melody across woodwinds, or using thirds to highlight the melody taken by them. This process placed a premium on chamber music for more public performance, giving a further boost to the string quartet and other small ensemble groupings.

It was during this decade that public taste began, increasingly, to recognize that Haydn and Mozart had reached a higher standard of composition. By the time Mozart arrived at age 25, in 1781, the dominant styles of Vienna were recognizably connected to the emergence in the 1750s of the early Classical style. By the end of the 1780s, changes in performance practice, the relative standing of instrumental and vocal music, technical demands on musicians, and stylistic unity had become established in the composers who imitated Mozart and Haydn. During this decade Mozart composed his most famous operas, his six late symphonies that helped to redefine the genre, and a string of piano concerti that still stand at the pinnacle of these forms.

One composer who was influential in spreading the more serious style that Mozart and Haydn had formed is Muzio Clementi, a gifted virtuoso pianist who tied with Mozart in a musical “duel” before the emperor in which they each improvised and performed their compositions. Clementi’s sonatas for the piano circulated widely, and he became the most successful composer in London during the 1780s. Also in London at this time was Jan Ladislav Dussek, who, like Clementi, encouraged piano makers to extend the range and other features of their instruments, and then fully exploited the newly opened possibilities. The importance of London in the Classical period is often overlooked, but it served as the home to the Broadwood’s factory for piano manufacturing and as the base for composers who, while less notable than the “Vienna School”, had a decisive influence on what came later. They were composers of many fine works, notable in their own right. London’s taste for virtuosity may well have encouraged the complex passage work and extended statements on tonic and dominant.

Circa 1790–1820

When Haydn and Mozart began composing, symphonies were played as single movements—before, between, or as interludes within other works—and many of them lasted only ten or twelve minutes; instrumental groups had varying standards of playing, and the continuo was a central part of music-making.

In the intervening years, the social world of music had seen dramatic changes. International publication and touring had grown explosively, and concert societies formed. Notation became more specific, more descriptive—and schematics for works had been simplified (yet became more varied in their exact working out). In 1790, just before Mozart’s death, with his reputation spreading rapidly, Haydn was poised for a series of successes, notably his late oratorios and “London” symphonies. Composers inParis, Rome, and all over Germany turned to Haydn and Mozart for their ideas on form.

Portrait of Beethoven by Joseph Karl Stieler, 1820

The time was again ripe for a dramatic shift. In the 1790s, a new generation of composers, born around 1770, emerged. While they had grown up with the earlier styles, they heard in the recent works of Haydn and Mozart a vehicle for greater expression. In 1788 Luigi Cherubini settled in Paris and in 1791 composed Lodoiska, an opera that raised him to fame. Its style is clearly reflective of the mature Haydn and Mozart, and its instrumentation gave it a weight that had not yet been felt in the grand opera. His contemporary Étienne Méhul extended instrumental effects with his 1790 opera Euphrosine et Coradin, from which followed a series of successes.

Hummel in 1814

The most fateful of the new generation was Ludwig van Beethoven, who launched his numbered works in 1794 with a set of three piano trios, which remain in the repertoire. Somewhat younger than the others, though equally accomplished because of his youthful study under Mozart and his native virtuosity, wasJohann Nepomuk Hummel. Hummel studied under Haydn as well; he was a friend to Beethoven andFranz Schubert. He concentrated more on the piano than any other instrument, and his time in London in 1791 and 1792 generated the composition and publication in 1793 of three piano sonatas, opus 2, which idiomatically used Mozart’s techniques of avoiding the expected cadence, and Clementi’s sometimes modally uncertain virtuoso figuration. Taken together, these composers can be seen as the vanguard of a broad change in style and the center of music. They studied one another’s works, copied one another’s gestures in music, and on occasion behaved like quarrelsome rivals.

The crucial differences with the previous wave can be seen in the downward shift in melodies, increasing durations of movements, the acceptance of Mozart and Haydn as paradigmatic, the greater use of keyboard resources, the shift from “vocal” writing to “pianistic” writing, the growing pull of the minor and of modal ambiguity, and the increasing importance of varying accompanying figures to bring “texture” forward as an element in music. In short, the late Classical was seeking a music that was internally more complex. The growth of concert societies and amateur orchestras, marking the importance of music as part of middle-class life, contributed to a booming market for pianos, piano music, and virtuosi to serve as examplars. Hummel, Beethoven, and Clementi were all renowned for their improvising.

Direct influence of the Baroque continued to fade: the figured bass grew less prominent as a means of holding performance together, the performance practices of the mid-18th century continued to die out. However, at the same time, complete editions of Baroque masters began to become available, and the influence of Baroque style continued to grow, particularly in the ever more expansive use of brass. Another feature of the period is the growing number of performances where the composer was not present. This led to increased detail and specificity in notation; for example, there were fewer “optional” parts that stood separately from the main score.

The force of these shifts became apparent with Beethoven’s 3rd Symphony, given the name Eroica, which is Italian for “heroic”, by the composer. As with Stravinsky’s The Rite of Spring, it may not have been the first in all of its innovations, but its aggressive use of every part of the Classical style set it apart from its contemporary works: in length, ambition, and harmonic resources as well.

First Viennese School

View of Vienna in 1758, by Bernardo Bellotto

The First Viennese School is a name mostly used to refer to three composers of the Classical period in late-18th-centuryVienna: W. A. Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven. Franz Schubert is occasionally added to the list.

In German speaking countries, the term Wiener Klassik (lit. Viennese classical era/art) is used. That term is often more broadly applied to the Classical era in music as a whole, as a means to distinguish it from other periods that are colloquially referred to as classical, namely Baroque and Romantic music.

The term “Viennese School” was first used by Austrian musicologist Raphael Georg Kiesewetter in 1834, although he only counted Haydn and Mozart as members of the school. Other writers followed suit, and eventually Beethoven was added to the list. The designation “first” is added today to avoid confusion with the Second Viennese School.

Whilst, Schubert apart, these composers certainly knew each other (with Haydn and Mozart even being occasional chamber-music partners), there is no sense in which they were engaged in a collaborative effort in the sense that one would associate with 20th-century schools such as the Second Viennese School, or Les Six. Nor is there any significant sense in which one composer was “schooled” by another (in the way that Berg and Webern were taught by Schoenberg), though it is true that Beethoven for a time received lessons from Haydn.

Attempts to extend the First Viennese School to include such later figures as Anton Bruckner, Johannes Brahms, and Gustav Mahler are merely journalistic, and never encountered in academic musicology.

Classical influence on later composers

1875 oil painting of Franz Schubert by Wilhelm August Rieder, after his own 1825 watercolor portrait

Musical eras seldom disappear at once; instead, features are replaced over time, until the old is simply felt as “old-fashioned”. The Classical style did not “die” so much as transform under the weight of changes.

Felix Mendelssohn

Portrait of Mendelssohn by the English miniaturist James Warren Childe (1778–1862), 1839

One crucial change was the shift towards harmonies centering around “flatward” keys: shifts in thesubdominant direction. In the Classical style, major key was far more common than minor, chromaticism being moderated through the use of “sharpward” modulation, and sections in the minor mode were often merely for contrast. Beginning with Mozart and Clementi, there began a creeping colonization of the subdominant region. With Schubert, subdominant moves flourished after being introduced in contexts in which earlier composers would have confined themselves to dominant shifts. This introduced darker colors to music, strengthened the minor mode, and made structure harder to maintain. Beethoven contributed to this by his increasing use of the fourth as a consonance, and modal ambiguity—for example, the opening of the D Minor Symphony.

Franz Schubert, Carl Maria von Weber, and John Field are among the most prominent in this generation of “Classical Romantics”, along with the young Felix Mendelssohn. Their sense of form was strongly influenced by the Classical style, and they were not yet “learned” (imitating rules which were codified by others), but they directly responded to works by Beethoven, Mozart, Clementi, and others, as they encountered them. The instrumental forces at their disposal were also quite “Classical” in number and variety, permitting similarity with Classical works.

However, the forces destined to end the hold of the Classical style gathered strength in the works of each of the above composers. The most commonly cited one is harmonic innovation. Also important is the increasing focus on having a continuous and rhythmically uniform accompanying figuration:Beethoven’s Moonlight Sonata was the model for hundreds of later pieces—where the shifting movement of a rhythmic figure provides much of the drama and interest of the work, while a melody drifts above it. Greater knowledge of works, greater instrumental expertise, increasing variety of instruments, the growth of concert societies, and the unstoppable domination of the piano—which created a huge audience for sophisticated music—all contributed to the shift to the “Romantic” style.

Drawing the line between these two styles is impossible: some sections of Mozart’s works, taken alone, are indistinguishable in harmony and orchestration from music written 80 years later—and composers continue to write in normative Classical styles into the 20th century. Even before Beethoven’s death, composers such as Louis Spohr were self-described Romantics, incorporating, for example, more extravagant chromaticism in their works.

However, Vienna’s fall as the most important musical center for orchestral composition is generally felt to mark the Classical style’s final eclipse—and the end of its continuous organic development of one composer learning in close proximity to others. Franz Liszt and Frédéric Chopin visited Vienna when young, but they then moved on to other vistas. Composers such as Carl Czerny, while deeply influenced by Beethoven, also searched for new ideas and new forms to contain the larger world of musical expression and performance in which they lived.

Renewed interest in the formal balance and restraint of 18th century classical music led in the early 20th century to the development of so-called Neoclassical style, which numbered Stravinsky and Prokofiev among its proponents, at least at certain times in their careers.

 

Classical period instruments

Fortepiano by Paul McNulty after Walter & Sohn, ca. 1805

Strings

  • Violin
  • Viola
  • Cello
  • Contrabass

Woodwinds

  • Basset clarinet
  • Basset horn
  • Clarinette d’amour
  • Classical clarinet
  • Chalumeau

Keyboards

  • Clavichord
  • Fortepiano
  • Harpsichord

Brasses

  • Buccin
  • Ophicleide – serpent replacement, precursor of tuba
  • French horn

Timeline of Classical composers

Further reading

  • Rosen, Charles (1972 expanded 1997) – The Classical Style. New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-04020-3 (expanded edition with CD, 1997)
  • Downs, Philip G. (1992) – Classical Music: The Era of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, 4th vol of Norton Introduction to Music History. W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-95191-X (hardcover).
  • Lihoreau, Tim; Fry, Stephen (2004) – Stephen Fry’s Incomplete and Utter History of Classical Music. Boxtree. ISBN 978-0-7522-2534-0
  • Taruskin, Richard (2005, rev. Paperback version 2009) – Oxford History of Western Music. Oxford University Press (USA). ISBN 978-0-19-516979-9 (Hardback), ISBN 978-0-19-538630-1 (Paperback)
  • Hanning, Barbara Russano; Grout, Donald Jay (1998 rev. 2006)- Concise History of Western Music. W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-92803-9 (hardcover).
  • Grout, Donald Jay; Palisca, Claude V. (1996) – A History of Western Music, Fifth Edition. W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-96904-5 (hardcover).

External links

Sours: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/musicapp_historical/chapter/history-of-classical-music/

You will also like:

Served as lighting here. Soon there was a rumble, as if something massive and heavy were moving away. Indeed, before his eyes, a part of the wall slid to the side and entered the room. It was an old-style bio-evacuation capsule, placed vertically on a movable platform of an electric cargo car.



1887 1888 1889 1890 1891