Nome, alaska aliens wikipedia

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Nome, Alaska

City in Alaska, United States

City in Alaska, United States



City of Nome
Steadman Street in Nome, looking north from King Place, in May 2002

Steadman Street in Nome, looking north from King Place, in May 2002

Location of Nome, Alaska

Location of Nome, Alaska

Nome is located in Alaska


Location of Nome, Alaska

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Nome is located in North America


Nome (North America)

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Coordinates: 64°30′14″N165°23′58″W / 64.50389°N 165.39944°W / 64.50389; -165.39944Coordinates: 64°30′14″N165°23′58″W / 64.50389°N 165.39944°W / 64.50389; -165.39944
CountryUnited States
Census AreaNome
IncorporatedApril 12, 1901[1]
 • TypeCouncil-Manager
 • MayorJohn Handeland[2]
 • State senatorDonald Olson (D)
 • State rep.Neal Foster (D)
 • Total21.49 sq mi (55.65 km2)
 • Land12.80 sq mi (33.15 km2)
 • Water8.69 sq mi (22.50 km2)
Elevation20 ft (6 m)
 • Total3,598
 • Estimate 


 • Density302.37/sq mi (116.74/km2)
 • DemonymNomeite Noman
 • Census Area9,492
Time zoneUTC−9 (Alaska (AKST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC−8 (AKDT)
ZIP Code


Area code907
FIPS code02-54920
GNIS IDs1407125, 2419435

Nome (; Inupiaq: SitŋasuaqIPA: [sitŋɐsuɑq]) is a city in the Nome Census Area in the Unorganized Borough of Alaska, United States. The city is located on the southern Seward Peninsula coast on Norton Sound of the Bering Sea. In 2018 the population was estimated at 3,866, a rise from the 3,598 recorded in the 2010 census, up from 3,505 in 2000. Nome was incorporated on April 9, 1901, and was once the most-populous city in Alaska. Nome lies within the region of the Bering Straits Native Corporation, which is headquartered in Nome.

The city of Nome also claims to be home to the world's largest gold pan, although this claim has been disputed by the Canadian city of Quesnel, British Columbia.[5]

In the winter of 1925, a diphtheria epidemic raged among Alaska Natives in the Nome area. Fierce territory-wide blizzard conditions prevented the delivery of a life-saving serum by aeroplane from Anchorage. A relay of dog sled teams was organized to deliver the serum. Today, the Iditarod Dog Sled Race follows the same route they took and ends in Nome.


Gold Pan, Anvil City Square

The origin of the city's name "Nome" is debated; there are three theories. The first is that the name was given by Nome's founder, Jafet Lindeberg, an immigrant from Norway.[citation needed] Nome appears as a toponym in several places in Norway.

A second theory is that Nome received its name through an error: allegedly when a British cartographer copied an ambiguous annotation made by a British officer on a nautical chart, while on a voyage up the Bering Strait. The officer had written "? Name" next to the unnamed cape. The mapmaker misread the annotation as "C. Nome", or Cape Nome, and used that name on his own chart;[6] the city in turn took its name from the cape.

The third proposed origin of the name is from a misunderstanding of the local Inupiaq word for "Where at?", Naami.[7]

In February 1899, some local miners and merchants voted to change the name from Nome to Anvil City, because of the confusion with Cape Nome, 12 miles (19 km) south, and the Nome River, the mouth of which is 4 mi (6.4 km) south of Nome. The United States Post Office in Nome refused to accept the change. Fearing a move of the post office to Nome City, a mining camp on the Nome River, the merchants unhappily agreed to change the name of Anvil City back to Nome.[citation needed]

Geography and climate[edit]

An aerial view of Nome, Alaska, in July 2006

Nome is located at 64°30′14″N165°23′58″W / 64.50389°N 165.39944°W / 64.50389; -165.39944 (64.503889, −165.399444).[8] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 21.6 square miles (56 km2), of which 12.5 square miles (32 km2) is land and 9.1 square miles (23.6 km2) (41.99%) is water.

Nome has a subarctic climate (KöppenDfc), with long, very cold winters, and short, cool summers. However, conditions in both winter and summer are moderated by the city's coastal location: winters are less severe than in the Interior, and conversely, summers are lukewarm. For example, Fairbanks at a similar parallel quite far inland has much greater temperature swings with both very warm and cold temperatures throughout the year. Even so, Nome is influenced by Far East Russia's cold landmass and as a result the climate is a lot colder than in coastal Scandinavia at similar latitudes.

The coldest month is January, averaging 5.2 °F (−14.9 °C), although highs on average breach the freezing point on 2–4 days per month from December to March and there are 76 days annually of 0 °F (−17.8 °C) or lower temperatures, which have been recorded as early as October 12, 1996 and as late as May 5 in 1984. Average highs stay below freezing from late October until late April, and the average first and last dates of freezing lows are August 30 and June 9, respectively, a freeze-free period of 81 days. The warmest month is July, with an average of 52.2 °F (11.2 °C); temperatures rarely reach 80 °F (27 °C) or remain above 60 °F (16 °C) the whole night. Snow averages 76 inches (190 cm) per season, with the average first and last dates of measurable (≥0.1 inches or 0.25 centimetres) snowfall being October 4 and May 16; accumulating snow has not been officially observed in July or August. Precipitation is greatest in the summer months, and averages 16.8 inches (426.7 mm) per year. The annual average temperature is 27.4 °F (−2.6 °C). Extreme temperatures range from −54 °F (−48 °C) on January 27–28, 1989 up to 86 °F (30 °C) on June 19, 2013 and July 31, 1977; the record cold daily maximum is −40 °F (−40 °C), set on January 28–29, 1919, while, conversely, the record warm daily minimum is 64 °F (18 °C) last set on July 20, 1993.[9] The coldest has been February 1990 with a mean temperature of −17.2 °F (−27.3 °C), while the warmest month was August 1977 at 56.3 °F (13.5 °C); the annual mean temperature has ranged from 21.1 °F (−6.1 °C) in 1920 to 32.5 °F (0.3 °C) in 2016.[9]

Bering Sea water temperatures around Nome vary during summer from 34 to 48 °F (1.1 to 8.9 °C).[10]

Climate data for Nome Airport, Alaska (1981–2010 normals,[11] extremes 1906–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 51
Mean maximum °F (°C) 34.1
Average high °F (°C) 13.1
Daily mean °F (°C) 5.2
Average low °F (°C) −2.8
Mean minimum °F (°C) −29.0
Record low °F (°C) −54
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.94
Average snowfall inches (cm) 12.7
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 inch)10.7 9.5 8.6 8.5 8.6 8.5 12.2 15.5 14.9 12.1 11.5 11.9 132.5
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 inch)11.3 9.8 9.1 8.4 3.5 0.3 0 0 0.9 6.1 11.2 12.1 72.7
Average relative humidity (%) 72.3 69.4 70.6 73.7 73.7 74.1 78.5 79.7 75.1 74.1 74.5 71.6 73.9
Average dew point °F (°C) 0.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours62.2 140.1 205.0 245.3 290.3 275.3 250.3 178.1 153.6 116.7 66.4 53.0 2,036.3
Percent possible sunshine37 59 56 54 50 43 41 35 39 39 35 41 45
Source: NOAA (sun, relative humidity, and dew point 1961–1990)[9][12][13]


Historical population
2019 (est.)3,870[4]7.6%
U.S. Decennial Census[14]

Nome first appeared on the 1900 U.S. Census as an unincorporated village of 12,488 residents. At the time, it was the largest community in Alaska, ahead of Skagway and Juneau, the 2nd and 3rd largest places. The demographics for 1900 included 12,395 Whites, 42 Natives, 41 Asians and 10 Blacks.[15] It was formally incorporated as a city in 1901. By 1910, it had fallen to 2,600 residents. Of those, 2,311 were White, 235 were Natives and 54 for all other races. It dropped to the 2nd largest city in Alaska behind Fairbanks.[16] By 1920, it dropped to 9th place, with just 852 residents.

In 1930, it rose to 6th largest with 1,213 residents (882 Whites, 326 Natives, 5 others).[17] In 1940, it remained in 6th place with 1,559 residents. It dropped to 10th place in 1950 with 1,876 residents. In 1960, it rose to 8th place with 2,316 residents (with 1,608 "other", which was mostly Native; 705 Whites and 3 Blacks). By 1970, Nome had fallen out of the top 10 places to 18th largest community (although 9th largest incorporated city). In 1980, it was 15th largest (12th largest incorporated city). In 1990, it was 16th largest (12th largest incorporated city). In 2000, it was 25th largest (16th largest incorporated city). In 2010, it was now the 30th largest (16th largest incorporated city).

Inuit music and dance near Nome, 1900

As of the census of 2000, there were 3,505 people, 1,184 households, and 749 families residing in the city.[18] The population density was 279.7 people per square mile (108.0/km2). There were 1,356 housing units at an average density of 108.2 per square mile (41.8/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 51.04% Native American, 37.89% White, 1.54% Asian, 0.86% Black or African American, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.43% from other races, and 8.19% from two or more races, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.05% of the population.

There were 1,184 households, out of which 38.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.7% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.7% were non-families. 27.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 3.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.45.

In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 31.9% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 32.1% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, and 6.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 115.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 117.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $59,402, and the median income for a family was $68,804. Males had a median income of $50,521 versus $35,804 for females. The per capita income for the city is $23,402. About 5.4% of families and 6.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.3% under the age of 18 and 6.9% ages 65 or older.

The population of Nome is a mixture of Inupiat Eskimos and non-Natives. Although some employment opportunities are available, subsistence activities are prevalent in the community. A federally recognized tribe is located in the community, the Nome Eskimo Community. Former villagers from King Island also live in Nome. The ANCSA village corporation in Nome is Sitnasuak Native Corporation.


Seven years later (1907), houses have replaced the tents.


Inupiat hunted for game on the west coast of Alaska from prehistoric times and there is recent archeological evidence to suggest that there was an Inupiat settlement at Nome, known in Inupiat as Sitnasuak, before the discovery of gold.

Gold rush[edit]

Main article: Nome Gold Rush

In the summer of 1898, the "Three Lucky Swedes": Norwegian-AmericanJafet Lindeberg, and two naturalized American citizens of Swedish birth, Erik Lindblom and John Brynteson, discovered gold on Anvil Creek. News of the discovery reached the outside world that winter. By 1899, Nome had a population of 10,000 and the area was organized as the Nome mining district. In that year, gold was found in the beach sands for dozens of miles along the coast at Nome, which spurred the stampede to new heights. Thousands more people poured into Nome during the spring of 1900 aboard steamships from the ports of Seattle and San Francisco. By 1900, a tent city on the beaches and on the treeless coast reached 48 km (30 mi), from Cape Rodney to Cape Nome. In June of that year, Nome averaged 1000 newcomers a day.[19]

In 1899, Charles D. Lane founded Wild Goose Mining & Trading Co. Lane through his company constructed the Wild Goose Railroad, which ran from Nome to Dexter Discovery. The Railroad would later be extended in 1906–1908 to the village of Shelton also known as Lanes Landing.[20]

Many late-comers tried to "jump" the original claims by filing mining claims covering the same ground.[19] The federal judge for the area ruled the original claims valid, but some of the claim jumpers agreed to share their invalid claims with influential Washington politicians. Alexander McKenzie took an interest in the gold rush and secured the appointment of Arthur Noyes as the federal district judge for the Nome region for the purpose of taking control of gold placer mines in Nome. McKenzie seized mining claims with an unlawfully procured receivership granted by Judge Noyes. McKenzie's claim-jumping scheme was eventually stopped by the federal Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals.[21] However, the episode provided the plot for Rex Beach's best-selling novel The Spoilers (1906),[19][22] which was made into a stage play, then five times into movies, including two versions starring John Wayne: The Spoilers (co-starring Marlene Dietrich) and North to Alaska (1960, the theme of which mentions Nome.[23]) Wyatt Earp, of Tombstone, Arizona, fame, stayed in Nome for a while. In September 1899, Earp and partner Charles E. Hoxie built the Dexter Saloon, the city's first two-story wooden building and its largest and most luxurious saloon out of more than 60 saloons.

Street scene, Nome, c. 1907

During the period from 1900 to 1909, estimates of Nome's population reached as high as 20,000.[19] The highest recorded population of Nome, in the 1900 United States Census, was 12,488. At this time, Nome was the largest city in the Alaska Territory. Early in this period, the U.S. Army policed the area, and expelled any inhabitant each autumn who did not have shelter (or the resources to pay for shelter) for the harsh winter.

By 1910 Nome's population had fallen to 2,600,[24] and by 1934, to less than 1,500.[25]

In May 1910, the Industrial Worker, the newspaper of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), published a notice from the Nome Miners' Union and Local 240 of the Western Federation of Miners for all unemployed workers to stay away, saying that "All the rich mines are practically worked out."[26][27]

Fires in 1905 and 1934,[25] as well as violent storms in 1900, 1913, 1945 and 1974, destroyed much of Nome's gold rush-era architecture. The pre-fire "Discovery Saloon" is now a private residence and is being slowly restored as a landmark.

The Black Wolf Squadron, under the command of Capt. St. Clair Streett, landed here on August 23, 1920, after the culmination of a 4527-mile flight from Mitchel Field.[28]Noel Wien and Gene Miller based their air services from Nome in June 1927.[29][30]

Serum run[edit]

In 1925, Nome was the destination of the famous Great Race of Mercy, in which dog sleds played a large part in transporting diphtheria serum through harsh conditions. In 1973, Nome became the ending point of the 1,049+ mi (1,600+ km) Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race. The latter part of its route was used in the serum run.

The sled driver of the final leg of the relay was the Norwegian-born Gunnar Kaasen; his lead sled dog was Balto. A statue of Balto by F.G. Roth stands near the Central Park Zoo in Central Park, New York City. Leonhard Seppala ran the penultimate, and longest, leg of the 1925 serum run to Nome. One of his dogs, Togo, is considered the forgotten hero of the Great Race of Mercy;[31] another of his dogs, Fritz, is preserved and on display at the Carrie M. McLain Memorial Museum in Nome.

World War II and later[edit]

During World War II, Nome was the last stop on the ferry system for planes flying from the United States to the Soviet Union for the Lend-lease program. The airstrip currently in use was built and troops were stationed there. One "Birchwood" hangar remains and has been transferred to a local group with hopes to restore it. It is not located on the former Marks Air Force Base (now the primary Nome Airport); rather it is a remnant of an auxiliary landing field a mile or so away: "Satellite Field". In the hills north of the city, there were auxiliary facilities associated with the Distant Early Warning system that are visible from the city but are no longer in use.

Total gold production for the Nome district has been at least 3.6 million troy ounces (110,000 kg).[32]

Nome's population decline continued after 1910 although at a fairly slow rate. By 1950 Nome had 1,852 inhabitants.[33] By 1960 the population of Nome had climbed to 2,316. At this point placer gold mining was still the leading economic activity. The local Alaska Native population was involved in ivory carving and the U.S. military had stationed troops in the city also contributing to the local economy.[34]

The Hope Sled Dog Race was run between Anadyr, Russia, and Nome after the fall of the Soviet Union. The race continued for more than a decade, but has not been run since approximately 2004.


Gold mining has been a major source of employment and revenue for Nome through to the present day. Mining's contribution to the town was estimated at $6 million a year in 1990, before a major increase in the price of gold brought renewed interest to offshore leases (where 1,000,000 ounces of gold were estimated to be in reserve[35]) and a subsequent boom in revenues and employment.[36]


Higher education[edit]

The University of Alaska Fairbanks operates a regional satellite facility in Nome called the Northwest Campus (formerly known as Northwest Community College).

Public schools[edit]

Nome is served by Nome Public Schools and the following public schools attended by over 720 students:

Private schools[edit]

  • Nome Adventist School, a private school encompassing grades 1 through 9.


Nome's airwaves are filled by the radio stations KNOM (780 AM, 96.1 FM) and KICY (850 AM, 100.3 FM), plus a repeater of Fairbanks' KUAC, K217CK, on 91.3 FM.

Cable television and broadband in Nome is serviced by GCI, which offers all popular cable channels, plus most of Anchorage's television stations. Nome also has three local low-powered stations, K09OW channel 9 and K13UG channel 13 (both carrying programming from ARCS), plus K11TH channel 11 (a 3ABNowned and operated translator).

Nome is home to Alaska's oldest newspaper, the Nome Nugget.



Nome is a regional center of transportation for surrounding villages. There are two state-owned airports:

  • Nome Airport – public-use airport located two nautical miles (3.7 km) west of the central business district of Nome, it has one asphalt paved runway: 3/21 measures 5,576 by 150 feet (1,700 × 46 m) and 10/28 is 6,001 by 150 feet (1,829 × 46 m). An $8.5 million airport improvement project is nearing completion.[when?]
  • Nome City Field – a public-use airport located one nautical mile (1.85 km) north of the central business district of Nome, it has one runway designated 3/21 with a gravel surface measuring 1,950. It is serviced by general aviation.

Water ports[edit]

Nome seaport is used by freight ships and cruise ships,[37] located at 64° 30’ N and 165° 24’ W on the southern side of the Seward Peninsula in Norton Sound. The Corps of Engineers completed the Nome Harbor Improvements Project in the summer of 2006 adding a 3,025 ft (922 m) breakwater east of the existing Causeway and a 270 ft (82 m) spur on the end of the Causeway making it to a total of 2,982 feet (909 m). The City Dock (south) on the Causeway is equipped with marine headers to handle the community's bulk cargo and fuel deliveries. The City Dock is approximately 200 feet (61 m) in length with a depth of 22.5 feet (MLLW). The WestGold Dock (north) is 190 feet (58 m) in length with the same depth of 22.5 feet (ML, LW). The Westgold dock handles nearly all of the exported rock/gravel for this region and is the primary location to load/unload heavy equipment. The opening between the new breakwater and the Causeway (Outer Harbor Entrance) is approximately 500 feet (150 m) in width and serves as access to both Causeway deep water docks and the new Snake River entrance that leads into the Small Boat Harbor. The old entrance along the seawall has been filled in and is no longer navigable. (See photos on website) Buoys outline the navigation channel from the outer harbor entrance into the inner harbor. The Nome Small Boat Harbor has a depth of 10 feet (MLLW) and offers protected mooring for recreational and fishing vessels alongside 2 floating docks. Smaller cargo vessels and landing craft load village freight and fuel at the east, west and south inner harbor sheet pile docks, east beach landing and west barge ramp for delivery in the region.

An addition to the Nome facility in 2005 was a 60-foot-wide (18 m) concrete barge ramp located inside the inner harbor just west of the Snake River entrance. The ramp provides the bulk cargo carriers with a location closer to the Causeway to trans-load freight to landing craft and roll equipment on and off barges. This location also has 2 acres (8,100 m2) of uplands to be used for container, vessel and equipment storage.

Surface transportation[edit]

The road system leading from Nome is extensive, though sparsely used during the winter months and leads mostly through remote terrain

Local roads lead to Council, the Kougarok River, and Teller: the Nome-Council, Nome-Taylor, and Nome-Teller Highways, respectively. There are also smaller roads to communities up to 87 miles (140 km) from Nome,[38] yet no road connection to the other major cities of Alaska. There are no railroads going to or from Nome. A 500-mile (800 km) road project (Manley Hot Springs–Nome) is being discussed in Alaska. It has been estimated (as of 2010) to cost $2.3 to $2.7 billion, or approximately $5 million per mile.[39]


Local hospitals and medical centers include Norton Sound Regional Hospital and Nome Health Center. The hospital is a qualified acute care facility and medevac service. Long-term care is provided by Quyaana Care Center (a unit of the hospital). Specialized care is available through facilities such as Norton Sound Community Mental Health Center, Turning Point – Saquigvik (transitional living), and XYZ Senior Center. Nome is classified as a large town/Regional Center, it is found in EMS Region 5A in the Norton Sound Region. Emergency Services have limited highway, coastal and airport access. Emergency service is provided by 911 Telephone Service and by Nome Volunteer Ambulance Dept.

In popular culture[edit]

The realitytelevision seriesBering Sea Gold is set and filmed in Nome.

Nome is referenced in the song "Marry the Man Today" from the 1950 Frank Loesser/Jo Swerling/Abe Burrows musical Guys and Dolls, and in "Ah, Paree!" from Stephen Sondheim's 1971 musical Follies.

In the 1989 Pixar film Knick Knack, Knick's snow globe is labeled "Nome Sweet Nome, Alaska".[40]

At least two major films have been set in Nome, but not filmed there: the 1995 animated/live-action family film Balto starring Kevin Bacon, and the 2009 science-fiction/horror film The Fourth Kind starring Milla Jovovich.

In "Ice", a 1993 episode of the television series X-Files, Mulder and Scully are sent to a remote Alaskan research facility at Icy Cape in which a five-member team are found dead, possibly due to an alien lifeform that infects a human host and makes its host want to kill other people. Towards the end of the episode, the personnel from Doolittle Airfield (a fictional military installation named after real-life General James (Jimmy) H. Doolittle,[41] a former resident and WWIfighter pilot and Medal of Honor recipient) in Nome, Alaska, rescue the remaining survivors and the last infected victim (character Nancy Da Silva played by Felicity Huffman) is airlifted out of the base.

The 2002 Disney comedy/adventure film Snow Dogs, starring Cuba Gooding Jr. and James Coburn, is set against the running of the Iditarod race.

In episode 1 of the 1997 BBC television travel series Full Circle, British actor, comedian, writer and presenter Michael Palin (of Monty Python fame), traveled to Nome and met a goldpanner on the "Golden Sands of Nome".

In The Simpsons Movie, the Simpsons seek refuge in Alaska. In their new log cabin home, Marge Simpson is seen knitting a tapestry that says "Nome Sweet Nome", which implies the family may have taken up residence in Nome.

In the 2018 alternate history short story "Liberating Alaska" by Harry Turtledove, Nome (under the name Siknazuak, which is a variant of its Iñupiat name) in the story is taken over by the Soviet Union in June 1929 and is eventually liberated by the United States Marine Corps. In the story, Alaska isn't sold to the US in 1867 and remains part of Russia until the end of the Russian Civil War when Vladimir Lenin is forced to cede Alaska to the US following the Allied intervention in the war.

Films set in Nome[edit]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^1996 Alaska Municipal Officials Directory. Juneau: Alaska Municipal League/Alaska Department of Community and Regional Affairs. January 1996. p. 106.
  2. ^;id=103.
  3. ^"2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  4. ^ ab"Population and Housing Unit Estimates". United States Census Bureau. May 24, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  5. ^Pynn, Larry (July 31, 2010). "B.C. Small Towns Go Big-Time; 'the World's Largest' are Magic Words that Draw Tourists and their Money". The Vancouver Sun – via ProQuest.
  6. ^"Nome Convention and Visitor Bureau". Archived from the original on March 15, 2008. Retrieved January 17, 2008.
  7. ^"Iñupiat Eskimo dictionary"(PDF). Alaska Government. Alaska Rural School Project Department of Education. p. 166. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
  8. ^"US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  9. ^ abc"NOWData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  10. ^"". Retrieved May 5, 2019.
  11. ^Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
  12. ^"AK NOME MUNI AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved September 23, 2015.
  13. ^"WMO Climate Normals for Nome, AK 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  14. ^"Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^"U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  19. ^ abcdCarrighar, Sally January 16, 1954). "The Gold Rush Isn't Over Yet!" Saturday Evening Post. 226 (29):32-10
  20. ^sherri, McBride (1996). "Trains of the Seward Peninsula"(PDF).
  21. ^Tornanses v. Melsing, 106 F. 775 (9th Cir. 1901)
  22. ^"The Spoilers". Retrieved January 23, 2013.
  23. ^Please notice, according to North to Alaska-article the film is based on the play Birthday Gift by Ladislas Fodor.
  24. ^Farm Journal Complete World Atlas, 1912 Edition, p. 195
  25. ^ abAuthor unknown (October 1934) "Nome No More." Time. 24 (14):16
  26. ^Upton, Austin. "IWW Yearbook 1910". IWW History Project. University of Washington. Retrieved April 19, 2016.
  27. ^"Workers Stay Away from the Frozen North". Industrial Worker. 2 (9). May 21, 1910. p. 1.
  28. ^Cohen, Stan (1998). Alaska Flying Expedition. Missoula: Pictorials Histories Publishing Co., Inc. pp. v, 1–2. ISBN .
  29. ^Harkey, Ira (1991). Pioneer Bush Pilot. Bantam Books. pp. 183–184. ISBN .
  30. ^Rearden, Jim (2009). Alaska's First Bush Pilots, 1923-30. Missoula: Pictorial Histories Publishing Company, Inc. pp. 39–40. ISBN .
  31. ^"Togo Sled Dog Overlooked by History". December 5, 1929. Retrieved January 23, 2013.
  32. ^A.H Koschman and M.H. Bergendahl (1968) Principal Gold-Producing Districts of the United States, U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 610, p.18.
  33. ^Hammond's Complete World Atlas, 1952 Edition, p. 355
  34. ^World Book Encyclopedia, 1967 Edition, Vol. 14, p. 351
  35. ^"Nome Offshore Placer deposits (ARDF #NM253) Au". Retrieved January 27, 2019.
  36. ^Stinson, Holly (1991). "Nome: Gold & Government Rule the Economy"(PDF). Alaska Department of Labor.
  37. ^City of Nome, PortArchived March 3, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^"General Information". Nome Convention and Visitors Bureau. Archived from the original on August 16, 2009. Retrieved September 16, 2008.
  39. ^Cockerham, Sean (January 27, 2010). "Nome road could cost $2.7 billion". Anchorage Daily News. Archived from the original on January 30, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
  40. ^"Knick Knack". YouTube. Retrieved May 14, 2021.
  41. ^"Jimmy Doolittle". Retrieved December 22, 2017.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nome.
  • City of Nome
  • University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections – Frank H. Nowell Photographs Photographs documenting scenery, towns, businesses, mining activities, Native Americans, and Eskimos in the vicinity of Nome, Alaska from 1901 to 1909.
  • University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections – Wilhelm Hester Photographs 345 photographs c. 1893–1906 of Puget Sound sailing vessels and ships' crews, the Alaska Gold Rush in Nome and vicinity in 1900, images of logging activities in Washington state, and San Francisco's Chinatown.
  • University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections – Eric A. Hegg Photographs 736 photographs from 1897 to 1901 documenting the Klondike and Alaska gold rushes, including depictions of frontier life in Skagway and Nome, Alaska and Dawson, Yukon Territory.
  • Nome, Alaska at Curlie
  • "Nome" . Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921.
  • The Papers of Frances Ross of Nome, Alaska at Dartmouth College Library
  • Henriette Hanson Autobiography and Correspondence on her Life in Nome at Dartmouth College Library
The Fourth Kind.jpg

The Fourth Kind is a 2009 American science fiction horror film directed by Olatunde Osunsanmi, starring Milla Jovovich, Elias Koteas, Corey Johnson, Will Patton, Charlotte Milchard, and Mia Mckenna-Bruce. The title is derived from the expansion of J. Allen Hynek's classification of close encounters with aliens, in which the fourth kind denotes alien abductions.

The film purports to be based on real events occurring in Nome, Alaska in 2000, in which psychologist Dr. Abigail Emily "Abbey" Tyler uses hypnosis to uncover memories from her patients of alien abduction, and finds evidence suggesting that she may have been abducted as well. The film has two components: dramatization, in which professional actors portray the individuals involved, and video footage purporting to show the 'actual' victims undergoing hypnosis. (At some points in the film, the "actual" and dramatized footage is presented alongside each other in split-screen.) Throughout the film, Abbey is shown being interviewed on television in 2002, two years after the abductions occurred. The film, which was largely panned by critics, made US$47.71 million in cinemas worldwide.

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Talk:The Fourth Kind

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I study physics at a major university. There is a reason why the science community wants to dispell any claim of alien encounter to our solar system, let alone earth. For intelligent life to reach our solar system would require travel at light spead and god forbid that technology be tangible. Galileo all over again. When science begins to close it's eyes to creative analysis our world is in some trouble.

Steve —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 06:05, 28 January 2011 (UTC) Just because you studied physics doesn't mean you can shut down the possibility of some ancient civilization light years away that could have discovered technology far beyond our wildest imaginations. I'm not trying to be an asset all I'm saying is literally it is far more logical than to think that our intelligence is the set bar. I fully believe this movie is just trying to put some proof out there. Scary and movie in a phycolog8cal kind of way 8 — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 08:43, 26 July 2018 (UTC)[]


there is no plot section, like other pages on movies. Btw it should clearly state that this movie is dumb

RMC- I suggest that this page butwholwence to the Ancient Astronaut theory. Wile the movie is fictional, the ancient depictions of rockets and persons in space suits however, are real artifacts from Sumerian sites. Wikipedia has a responsibility to itself and the readers to be informative that there are factual elements in this film. Though the content of these artifacts are disputed, there are those who do see them as described above and in the film. So a reference or a link to something about the ancient astronaut theory or Zecharia Sitchin's interpretations of these artifacts should be contained within this page. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 06:16, 23 November 2009 (UTC)[]

A little neutrality here?[edit]

Is it possible that you can at least TRY to remain neutral in your "analysis"? Although I completely agree with your points, and unless I'm mistaken, there is still a degree of neutrality that should be maintained here.


For the record, I completely stopped believing the movie when they hypnotized Dr. Tyler to recount the events of her abduction that took place three days before her daughter was abducted, yet she was acting as if the aliens had already taken her daughter (which by the time of the hypnosis they had, but not by the time of the events she was hypnotized to recall), even going as far as to scream things along the lines of 'I just want my daughter back. You took her from me.' Darth Zantetsuken (Grovel/Beg/Praise) 13:33, 8 November 2009 (UTC)[]

That's because she's not hypnotized there. She's actually talking to the alien but it's using her as a vessel to talk through. She's talking to herself really. I felt I need to clear that up even if the movie was not true. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 01:07, 20 September 2011 (UTC)[]

Can there be a prominent statement that this movie is fictional?[edit]

The cited Anchorage investigation blows this movie out of the water. Why the weak language in the article? From reading this entry I got the impression that there was a substantial probability that this movie depicted real events. The cited sources make it clear that it is 100% fictional. Please, please, please don't let Wikipedia become a place for guerrilla marketing. First paragraph should state that this movie is not based on actual events, in direct contradiction to the claims of the advertising. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 22:07, 6 November 2009 (UTC)[]

I dont' agree[edit]

This would make the movie boring for someone who has read the article in Wikipedia before watching it. (talk) 00:40, 9 March 2010 (UTC)[]

Why in Gods name would you read a Wiki article on a movie before watching? - Gunnanmon (talk) 06:24, 17 March 2010 (UTC)[]

I don't agree with those who don't agree[edit]

(i.e. PLEASE MARK THIS AS BEING FAKE, ASAP) I read this article because I wanted to know if the movie was based on any actual facts, after getting the scoop from my parents who were actually genuinely convinced by the "clouded/fictional non-fiction" marketing of this film. In any event, it should be wiki's duty to provide truthful information about the VALIDITY of the information purported by this film, even we don't immediately delve into the examination of the claims until a section deeper in the page. Add to that, I'm sitting in a dark room... and I read through the whole plot before I got to the part about truthfulness! (So PLEASE, someone put a light kind of *although the <makers of the film/company> claim that the film is based on true events, not one of the claims were ever validated/signed as being true. See _____ for details.*.

I can see how this is kind of a gray area because some people aren't interested in having the "this might be real" experience ruined for them... but I HIGHLY doubt someone who isn't genuinely interested in everything true of this movie, would actually GO to a wiki page! (be it plot, characters, production, or manufacturing, or just lies). It's only right that we try to put a nail in this controversy asap, with a clean non-biased statement right at the beginning of the article. (talk) 04:13, 7 April 2010 (UTC)[]

Non-verifiable content[edit]

There are ads out there right now that I feel clearly show the advertisers involved with the film haveing a extreme emphasis on the case studies. " The Fourth Kind. Based On Case Studies. In theaters Nov. 4. Click here to watch trailer.".

So.. given this clear motive an argument for a viral marketing campaign seems sound.. given THAT motive the activies on peer edited sites or blogs is just as clear. propaganda... im tired of people expecting us to be dumb. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 02:38, 2 November 2009 (UTC)[]

Someone posted the movie's story plot on here! I'm a fan of the movie and I feel like this takes away from the movie by posting spoiler content. Moderators need to keep a close eye out on this page, there seems to be alot of non-believer haters writing very BIASED comments on the page that are NOT verifiable. (E.A. 16:30, 23 October 2009 (UTC))

I think the wikipost needs to be re-edited since there is no proof of viral marketing by the producers. Did anyone try to contact the producer? The article seems REALLY BIASED, written in an accusatory manner by people who think the movie is all viral marketing. The movie claimed to be "dramatization" of real events, and forums have controversial discussions about the truth of this movie, many of which support the validity of the movie. The movie claims to be based on a combination of case studies, not based on specific missing persons from Nome. And how is the location of where it is filmed an important matter or viral marketing? The producers admitted to not filming in Nome because of harsh weather conditions so it makes sense that they would choose a different location. E.A. 18:38, 28 September 2009 (UTC)
I cannot find any actual events this creative work is based upon. I think the claim may be a Blair Witch Project-style Guerrilla Marketing campaign. Abe Froman (talk)
Just a thought, since the name of this movie is "Fourth Kind" as a reference to the classifications set forth by UFO researchers, could the "case studies" actually just be any of a number of UFO stories. In other words, the case studies might not be a "medical case studies". It would be very misleading, but it would give the movie studio an excuse. —Preceding unsigned comment added by PuckSR (talk • contribs) 17:20, 17 October 2009 (UTC)[]
Fine, I've changed the wording. Nevertheless, to call it a hoax, without any external sources to back this up, would constitute original research. As it is, the "based on actual events" thing is simply a claim made by the movie makers, and isn't anything we need to take a position on. Lampman (talk) 15:03, 28 August 2009 (UTC)[]
Anyway, I've added an external - reasonably reliable - source that comments on the story's alleged veracity. Lampman (talk) 23:02, 30 August 2009 (UTC)[]
I would think that any information garnered from Dermot Cole's blog at the could not be used in this page. He does nothing but list content from other sources (namely the movie synopsis and a list of "sightings" taken from the movie's promotional site), and follow it up with one or two lines of wild speculations that do not actually add anything to the argument. He lacks citations and credibility. Ageotas (talk) 04:54, 15 September 2009 (UTC)[]
This article is obviously being tended by a Guerilla Marketer for the movie. The sources cited are media tie-in's to the movie. No Reliable Sources claim anything like what this astroturf does. I added the hoax tag as a result. Abe Froman (talk) 20:38, 21 September 2009 (UTC)[]
I searched for Dr Abigail Tyler in the Alaskan database of professional licenses. If she exists, she is not licensed to practice medicine in Alaska. This leads me to believe the backstory attributed to her is a hoax. Abe Froman (talk) 18:20, 22 September 2009 (UTC)[]
This article is not a hoax; see IMDb. If there are inaccurate elements in the article, feel free to remove them, and explain your removal(s) in your edit summary and on this talk page. The hoax tag does not apply to this article because this article is not a hoax. If there is questionable content in the article, {{Disputed}} or {{Disputed-section}} would be the correct template to use on the article. Finally, if you doubt this film's notability per Wikipedia:Notability (films), feel free to nominate it for deletion. Cunard (talk) 06:04, 23 September 2009 (UTC)[]
He's referring to the back story about the purported Dr. Tyler, not the article itself. --YRG (talk) 22:09, 3 November 2009 (UTC)[]

Agreeing with user Abe above. Whoever is linking to websites that claim to have evidence supporting the real-world existence of Dr. Abigail, is linking to websites which do not support the assertion. While the hoax tag may not be accurate (since the article is about an actual movie, which does exist) the text of the article should be monitored so that statements of "facts" can be denoted as "claims" where necessary.

I've added details about the article from the the "rural alaska blog." The sentence that had preceded the reference footnote had made it seem like the article it referenced was neutral; I changed the word "addresses" to the world "assails," and have also added specifics from the referenced article which relate to its argument. My intention was only to ensure that this wikipedia article more accurately relate the nature of the referenced article and its arguments re: the validity of the movie's claims. Notowen (talk) 17:41, 1 October 2009 (UTC)[]

There definitely seems to be something fishy going on here. Now the article reads that "a posting on the website for the Anchorage Daily News examined the validity of the film's premise". First of all it was not just some random "posting", it was an investigative article written by one of the newspaper's journalists, though in blog form. Secondly, "examined" is a weasel word to put it mildly; the article stops just short of calling the whole thing bullshit. I think Abe might be right that there's some sort of guerilla marketing going on here. I can't bother to go through the whole article history, but it might be worth doing at some point, including a check of IP addresses. Lampman (talk) 23:39, 14 October 2009 (UTC)[]
Ok, a quick check confirmed that User:GravelStache has made two edits to the article, both removing material critical of the film's premise. The account was created on 30 September, and has no other edits. It would be good to hear from this editor, to confirm that there is no conflict of interest at play here. Lampman (talk) 23:46, 14 October 2009 (UTC)[]

All of my edits regarding this film were deleted, despite being thoroughly referenced and sourced. It does seem quite obvious that someone who is part of the films production is editing this page. It is absolutely valid to reference websites that have contributors who have done research regarding the veracity of the story.

Also, if you are from the movie company, I can be bought off for $1000. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk • contribs) 04:04, 20 October 2009 (UTC) []

Definitely, my NPOV is up for sale too! By the way, User:Overworked85 falls into the same category as User:GravelStache above; account set up just to edit this page, edits made to preserve the film's premise. Be alert... Lampman (talk) 11:33, 20 October 2009 (UTC)[]
And add User:Eccentrixa to that list; again, new account, only used to edit this article the way the studio would have wanted it. There are probably more. Lampman (talk) 19:59, 1 November 2009 (UTC)[]
Like User:Dgneil. Lampman (talk) 20:06, 1 November 2009 (UTC)[]

These are "actual events" just like The Texas Chainsaw Massacre and The Blair Witch are. I am almost insulted that they think everyone on the planet is a blithering idiot. Those clips of "actual footage" have an awful lot of trees in it for footage supposedly shot in a tundra. Oops. I can't wait to see it though, looks like a good flick. (talk) 08:51, 21 October 2009 (UTC)[]

Wasn't logged in for some reason, but the last comment is from me.The Real Stucco (talk) 08:52, 21 October 2009 (UTC)[]

I remove the section on so-called viral marketing since none of the links are valid: Alaska News Archive , Alaska Psychiatry Journal and North Pacific News Archive76.187.246.201 (talk) 17:04, 24 October 2009 (UTC)Agios-Theseus[]

It says based on actual "case files/studies" or whatever, not based on actual events. Whether or not you believe the premise or events validity makes little difference. We should present this as neutral as possible. (talk) 21:24, 24 October 2009 (UTC)[]

For one thing, the room where the interview supposedly takes place does not exist at Chapman University. I would know; I'm a student there. --Fez2005 (talk) 09:39, 6 November 2009 (UTC)[]

Universal Pictures has admitted that it conducted a deceptive marketing campaign to promote the movie. That campaign includes the news articles about Abigail Tyler and the disappearances. [1]Abe Froman (talk) 19:19, 12 November 2009 (UTC)[]

One other person who might be part of the marketing campain: He made 4 edits to the article and added a plot that acts as if the plot is real. Can someone edit his changes? (talk) 22:59, 7 December 2009 (UTC)[]


This edit by a one time contributor has not yet been verified. Should it be removed? - (talk) 23:03, 23 October 2009 (UTC)[]

The plot summary is kind of poorly worded. I've tagged it for cleanup. --Delta1989 (talk/contributions) 12:29, 24 October 2009 (UTC)[]

Upon Reading this Article...[edit]

Upon Reading this Article, it looks to be the exact same wording used in the guerrilla marketing pitch that I've seen strewn about the internet. Can we get an NPOV in on this movie's production and concept? (talk) 01:41, 25 October 2009 (UTC)[]


Why was everything that discussed the controversy surrounding the legitimacy of the films claims removed? I think the readers have a right to know that this supposedly true account has no evidence to back up that any of the people in the film even existed. (talk) 06:04, 25 October 2009 (UTC)[]

Why? Because there are people – probably connected to the project – who keep editing the article so that it will fit in with their marketing campaign, that's why. It is hard to keep up with the spammers, I think it's time to request that the article be locked. Lampman (talk) 19:42, 1 November 2009 (UTC)[]
As much as I might agree with you that they should not be able to get away with this, Wikipedia is not the place for that kind of paragraph. LostMK (talk) 12:17, 5 November 2009 (UTC)[]

I watched this movie recently and I went to Wikipedia to help me figure out the validity of the claims in this film. I am now sadly disappointed that this Wikipedia article has let me down in this regard. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 23:36, 18 June 2010 (UTC)[]

Restoration of Critical Paragraph[edit]

Since the article is locked, maybe the critical paragraph from oct 18th can be restored by an admin or someone else: Let's not let Wikipedia be a vehicle for viral marketers.Awesomewithsauce (talk) 02:29, 5 November 2009 (UTC)[]

As much as I might agree with you that they should not be able to get away with this, Wikipedia is not the place for that kind of paragraph. LostMK (talk) 12:16, 5 November 2009 (UTC)[]

Reception Update[edit]

The Rotten Tomatoes and Metacritic scores need to be updated. Currently it is at 21% on Rotten Tomatoes and 34 on Metacritic. This will change throughout the weekend (probably) as more reviews are posted —Preceding unsigned comment added by Jaredmhagemann (talk • contribs) 04:34, 6 November 2009 (UTC)[]

Filming Locations[edit]

Contrary to information provided on, a large percentage of the aerial shots are taken around Squamish, British Columbia. This is evident by shots of the Stawamus Chief (, a prominent granite monolith overlooking the town. —Preceding unsigned comment added by Xj newb (talk • contribs) 01:46, 9 November 2009 (UTC)[]

Anunaki and the Jinn - Alaska, Nome[edit]

This movie was great, very innovative in its style and a great performance from Milla Jovovich. The phenomenon is not new as it can be compared with the legend of Rev Roberk Kirk of Aberfoyle author of the Seceret Commonwealth of Elves Fauns and Faries. His story can be found online and his book is still available written in old English. He disappeared eventually. I think the same beings are involved - it's obvious to me that those known as the Anunaki or Jinn or Fallen Angels are at work here. They are not ET, not from another galaxy - in fact they don't need spaceships. They can take any shape or form and can exist outside our perception of space time. Their energy can be compared to them being a car battery and us humans being the small circlur batteries used to power a watch. Hence when humans get overload they go mad, suicidal etc just as in the NOme examples - also this case is similar to the Mothman case at Pointpleasant - same and am sure there are lots of other similar cases around the world. —Preceding unsigned comment added by Vincejapfran (talk • contribs) 14:35, 12 November 2009 (UTC)[]

I would have to agree with the first guy. If you want to compare native stories with biblical accounts (markings included and all) it resembles possession and haunting. You can break it down, event by event, even the dark shade of negative light over the house, everything points to evil spirits of some kind. —Preceding unsigned comment added by Alethearia (talk • contribs) 05:25, 5 December 2010 (UTC)[]

Whether or not the film is made up doesn't change the fact that thousands of people across the globe report encounters, and how many are out there that don't report encounters? Like myself...? I didn't expect the patients to explain my experience! up to a certain point, mine was not a 4th kind encounter, from what I recall. I think the question should be... if this was based on a true story, doc. footage and all, would you be able to accept the reality of it? Because you believing or not believing doesn't matter, they are already here. Until you meet one, you have no idea how quickly you're perspective changes. Hope you're well met.... ps stay away from the desert....they are most definitely watching. I would share my own story if this crowd wasn't so biased on this subject. ....peace —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 03:50, 24 March 2010 (UTC)[]

Guys, I have had an alien abduction experience at 2 am two months ago, several UFO sightings before it, and I am 1,000,000% sure that the abduction was sleep paralysis mixed with halucinations(I was watching UFO Hunters on the History Channel). I am also sure that the UFOs that I saw(all triangles) were military aircraft, both secret and non-secret. If you have any arguments or discussion ideas, come to my talk page. Mammothmk2 (talk) 00:08, 25 March 2010 (UTC)[]

Yeah. Last night i got "abducted".. I know because this morning i woke up on someone elses couch and i had a splitting headache.. I felt very dizzy and frail for most of the morning... I think me and a couple buddies are gonna go out and get "abducted" again tonight.... —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 04:54, 8 April 2010 (UTC)[]


Would this qualify as a "found footage" horror film, or is it better described as a mockumentary? Serendipodous 12:45, 29 November 2009 (UTC)[]

I think it is more of a mockumentary.-WikiYoung27 (talk) 03:57, 11 April 2010 (UTC)[]


The plot is currently almost 2,000 words (1,631 to be exact), it needs to be between 400-700 per WP:FILMPLOT. This could be considered a copyright violation and needs to be fixed ASAP (I have not watched the film, so I can not help). Also, where is the source that the production budget is $10 million? Thanks. --Mike Allentalk·contribs 04:08, 12 December 2009 (UTC)[]

The "Real Dr Abigail Tyler" actress identified![edit]

the actress Charlotte Milchard plays the dr in the films "actual footage". it irks me that imdb doesnt include her but it will in time. i do not have time tonight to update the article since im in the middle of watching the movie, so please edit to reflect the actresses name. here is her website: Charlotte Milchards official websiteM8gen (talk) 02:21, 4 March 2010 (UTC)[]

"Panned universally"[edit]

I removed this statement from the introduction. Don't make such a statement unless there is a cited source or fact confirming it. The Rotten Tomatoes ratings isn't 0% and the DVD release managed to find at least two positive reviews to quote. "Universal" means 100% negative and no film in history has ever accomplished this. (talk) 23:04, 17 March 2010 (UTC)[]

Damn, they got me good.[edit]

I watched this movie not knowing anything about it other than it was a documentary style film about alien abductions. I took the based on actual studies thing lightly. I've heard that before in a horror movie. But this one offered up "actual" dialogue and video footage. When it showed the footage... Words can not describe my horror. Glad I didn't read the article until after watching the flick because, my word, it was AMAZING! Necro-File (talk) 10:24, 21 March 2010 (UTC)[]

I concur. [FetteK] — Preceding unsigned comment added by FetteK (talk • contribs) 16:12, 10 March 2011 (UTC)[]

New edits, regarding Abigail Tyler's body[edit]

I don't know if it's from random vandalism, or some sort of continuation of the viral marketing, but someone is trying add some nonsense about the Doctor dying of a stroke and her body disappearing from the morgue. If this sort of vandalism continues, maybe it really is time to look at locking the page. (At least for a while.) —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 15:36, 14 June 2010 (UTC)[]

This is a link to the waybackmachine archive of the local newspaper obituarys for the aledged date of the triple homicide suicide and suprize suprize no such beast.—Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 08:03, 2 August 2010 (UTC)[]

Paranormal vs Marketing scheme[edit]

So. It turns out that the "real" Dr (not mila jovovich) is an actress too. I guess that can explain the semi-hovering person in the "real" video, when also not real at all.

Question reamins, What did the cop see? and if all 3 were supposedly abducted at the end. HOW did she break her neck? I found nothing on the matter. I'm disappointed by this deception.

Real vs. Fake[edit]

All the "original documentary footage" was shot by the filmmakers as part of the production. All the people in the "original documentary footage" were paid actors. The "real" Dr. Abigail Tyler is played by actress Charlotte Milchard.

This is a confused assumption that needs to be edited or removed. The movie sometimes has scenes made to look like real footage (like the Abigail Tyler interview), but it never actually claims that those scenes are real. It only actually says on the screen that something is real (on the bottom of the screen) a couple times, like the tape recording. Just because you're easily fooled by footage made to look real does not mean an encyclopedia article on the movie should be arguing against claims that the movie never actually makes. This article argues against a straw man. The movie never actually says that any Charlotte Milchard footage is real. This is really bad for an encyclopedia. Malkiyahu (talk) 20:47, 23 May 2012 (UTC)[]

The text has been marked as "citation needed" for over a year now. I removed the text as it sounds more like someone has a personal problem with the movie. If someone can substantiate it, the text will still be here. TheNewKarl (talk) 08:49, 26 May 2012 (UTC)[]

The movie does claim this via the DVD subtitles. Every time we are supposedly looking at real footage or listening to real recordings, the subtitles list the names of the characters preceded by the word "Real", as opposed to when say Milla Jovovich is talking in a scene, where the subtitles just list the character's name. (talk) 23:47, 27 October 2012 (UTC)[]

Zimabu Eter[edit]

I was curious about this phrase and see there was casual discussion of it at during 2011. I wonder if in the 5 years since then any Sumerian experts have commented on what it might mean so that e could source it for this article. -- (talk) 01:36, 10 January 2016 (UTC)[]

IP edits[edit]

An persistent IP has been removing sourced material and introducing credulous and unsourced nonsense. I've warned the IP on their Talk page, but more eyes are appreciated. - LuckyLouie (talk) 04:47, 23 January 2018 (UTC)[]

Utter nonsense indeed. Ramblings of someone who apparently thinks this was real. --Majora (talk) 21:42, 23 January 2018 (UTC)[]
This editor is is now just engaging in vandalism. - LuckyLouie (talk) 21:46, 23 January 2018 (UTC)[]
I've requested protection. Now just a matter of waiting. --Majora (talk) 21:49, 23 January 2018 (UTC)[]
Last round of protection requested. Maybe time to ask again. - LuckyLouie (talk) 03:47, 2 February 2018 (UTC)[]
Nome, Alaska

Hostile Species


Madness inducement



Kidnapping human subjects.


Mind breaking

Inducing murder-suicide

Type of Hostile Species

Unseen Mind-Breakers

An unseen species of hostile aliens are the main antagonists of the 2009 science fiction horror film The Fourth Kind. They are implied to be responsible for several abductions in the town of Nome, Alaska (which in real life has a unusual high number of disappearances, despite having no cases of purported alien abductions or UFO sightings) as well as for driving some people insane, disoriented, disturbed, and violent.

Throughout the movie, which takes place in October 2000, the protagonist Dr. Abigail "Abbey" Tyler hypnotizes some patients who claimed to have contacted those aliens in order to investigate the events based on the memories of the encounters. She eventually finds out that she had been abducted as well.


Although the creatures are never shown in the movie, recordings of their distorted voices are heard and a blurry footage of what appears to be the white inside of their spaceship is briefly shown.


Dr. Awolowa Odusami, a specialist in ancient languages, identified the language in the recordings as Sumerian, an ancient language isolate spoken in Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq and Syria) approximately between 3000 and 2000 BC. He brings up the theory of ancient astronauts, stating that the Ancient Sumerians possibly had astronautic technology.

In the distorted recordings, the aliens also seem to speak some words in English, but full sentences were barely identified. One of them, spoken in either English or Sumerian, was identified is "I am God".

Here is an analysis of the supposed Sumerian messages in the movie.


In August 2000, two months before the main events of the movie, Tyler was sleeping with her husband Will when she suddenly sees him being stabbed to death by a mysterious, blurry figure. This left her to raise their two children, Ashley and Ronnie.

In October, Tyler conducts filmed hypnotherapy sessions with three patients who claimed to have been visited by alien intruders. They all state to have first seen a white owl looking at them, but their memories later get confused and they end up denying seeing such owl.

The first patient, Tommy Fisher, at some point gets nervous, refuses to continue the therapy and goes home. Later that night, an insane Tommy holds his wife and two children at gunpoint in their home. While the police surround the house, he asks for Tyler's presence and keeps questioning the meaning of "Zimabu Eter". Tyler goes there and tries to prevent Tommy from committing any crimes, but this does not work as he kills his family and himself.

Tyler starts to hypothesize about alien abductions, to which her colleague Dr. Abel Campos is skeptic. Her assistant then gives Tyler a recording that plays Tyler's voice and other distorted, electronic voices speaking an unknown language in what appears to be an episode of intruders in her home attacking her. Tyler contacts Dr. Awolowa Odusami, a colleague of her late husband and specialist in ancient languages, who shows sympathy towards her and interest in what is happening, and travels to Nome. He identifies the language in the recordings as Sumerian.

A second patient named Scott claims to know why Tommy did what he did. Under his request, Tyler hypnotizes him in his home with Campos watching as well. At some point during the hypnosis, he jerks upright and begins hovering above his bed, while a distorted electronic voice coming out of his mouth apparently commands that the "study" be "ended".

Later the police arrive in Tyler's home, and Sheriff August Thompson tells her that Scott had three upper vertebrae completely severed from his experience, and was completely paralyzed. Believing Tyler is conducting insane experiments, August tries to arrest her, but Campos defends her, stating that what they saw was indeed intriguing, and August instead places her under house arrest.

A police officer stays in the outside of Tyler's house watching and recording it with a dash-cam. At some point, the footage captures a large black triangular ship approaching the house. The video then gets extremely distorted, but the officer is heard saying that people were pulled out of the house and calling for backup. The police rush into the house and find Ronnie with a sobbing Tyler, who claims Ashley was abducted. Sheriff August does not believe this and removes Ronnie from her custody. Ronnie goes with them willingly, just telling her to "let go" when she tries to prevent this; it is later revealed that Ronnie still blames Tyler for Ashley's disappearance.

Tyler, wanting to go "directly to the source", decides to make contact with these beings in order to reunite with her daughter. She has Campos hypnotize her and Odusami watch. During the session, Tyler relives the witnessing of Ashley's abduction and parts of her own abduction as well. In a blurry footage, a needle is stung on Tyler's back and it is hinted that they also took some egg cells from her. After she begs the aliens to return Ashley, one of them replies difficult-to-understand sentences, which apparently communicates that Ashley will never be returned and that the creature is a savior and God.

After the session, Campos and Odusami notice something out of camera's view. A voice yells "Zimabu eter!" and then the three of them are abducted. In the aftermath, Tyler wakes up in a hospital, having broke her neck during the abduction. Sheriff August visits her and shows evidence that Will had killed himself with a gun, suggesting that her theory of a murder was merely a delusion.


Wikipedia aliens nome, alaska

The Fourth Kind is not an easy film to watch and neither was it an easy film to make. It was very difficult to make and tough to understand. It is about alien abductions and is a pseudo-documentary – supposed to be an enactment of true events that happened in Nome, Alaska, USA. The central character is a psychologist named Dr. Abigail “Abbey” Tyler who uses hypnosis to uncover memories from patients that she believes might have been abducted by aliens. There is also evidence that she might have been abducted by aliens at some point. The character is played by Charlotte Milchard in the actual footage while the re-enactment is done by actress Milla Jovovich. Here are some details from the character Dr. Abigail Tyler’s wiki.

Who is Dr. Abigail Tyler?

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Dr. Abigail Tyler is a psychologist who was once married to her husband Will until he was mysteriously murdered one night when he was sleeping. That left her alone to raise her two children Ashley and Ronnie. She specializes in finding out the truth behind what she believes are alien abductions of people in Nome, Alaska, and she does it by hypnotizing them and getting them to remember what happened. She conducts hypnotherapy sessions with such patients and tapes them so that she has evidence of what happened in these intense sessions. However, these sessions often turn violent with the patients indulging in violent acts after seemingly losing their senses.

What Happened in Nome, Alaska?

Later some incidents happen in Tyler’s life that make her believe that she might have been abducted by mysterious aliens at some point. The film shows events that took place in October 2000 and detail them before returning to the present day. In the film’s present-day there is a Dr. Abigail Tyler interview that is hosted by Chapman University which is televised. In this interview, Dr. Tyler describes a series of events that occurred in the town of Nome, Alaska, in which several people were seemingly abducted by aliens. There are some missing people in Nome, Alaska, as well. A series of terrifying events occur in the film in which several people are killed and even Dr. Tyler is seriously injured.

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Dr. Abigail Tyler Today

In one of the film’s traumatic scenes, Dr. Tyler’s daughter Ashley goes missing and Dr. Tyler claims that she was taken into the sky and has disappeared. The police who rush to Dr. Tyler’s house do not believe her and blames Dr. Tyler for her daughter’s disappearance. Dr. Tyler has a hypnosis session with her family and says that they were all abducted. Dr. Tyler wakes up in the hospital with a broken neck. She is paralyzed and has to move around in a wheelchair due to a broken neck. It is revealed at the film’s end that her husband Will had committed suicide and at the film’s end, Dr. Tyler is cleared of all charges against her. She leaves Alaska and goes to the East Coast but her health has gone down and she needs constant medical attention.

A Very Interesting Concept & Film

Dr. Tyler’s son Ronnie blames her for his sister’s disappearance and till the end, Ashley is never found. The Fourth Kind is the re-enactment of what is claimed as true-life incidents so in a way, two stories are running in the film. The actual events of the real Dr. Tyler and the re-enactment of that with another lady playing the role of Dr. Abigail Tyler. Like we said The Fourth Kind is not an easy film to watch. It is very violent and has concepts that are not easy to grasp. Still, it is a very interesting film to watch and will be loved by fans of alien abduction films as there is a belief that these events have occurred.

People who believe they were abducted by alien spaceships - 60 Minutes Australia

'The Fourth Kind' of fake?

Milla Jovovich gets meta in "The Fourth Kind," playing the role of "Dr. Abigail Tyler," whose actual existence is questionable.

Milla Jovovich gets meta in "The Fourth Kind," playing the role of "Dr. Abigail Tyler," whose actual existence is questionable.


  • "The Fourth Kind" is another horror film relying on the "found footage" technique
  • It uses a split screen of "real footage" and re-enactments starring Milla Jovovich
  • Officials in Nome, Alaska, where the movie is based, deny those claims, call it science fiction
  • Viewers think the use of this technique makes for a good scare, but not authenticity

(CNN) -- "The Fourth Kind" isn't the kind that Nome, Alaska, wants around.

The horror movie tries to say that documented disappearances of Nome residents are the result of alien abductions and that's just Hollywood hooey, said Mayor Denise Michels.

"People need to realize that this is a science fiction thriller," Michels said.

She said town residents have been getting a lot of phone calls lately, and frankly, they're a bit tired of talking about it.

"Some of the calls I'm just ignoring," Michels said, "because the issue we had to deal with in real life was very sensitive. The movie is portraying something like the 'Blair Witch Project,' and we're just hoping the message gets out that this is supposed to be for entertainment."

In real life, there was a string of disappearances in the small town on the west coast of Alaska, not far from the Bering Strait. In 2005, the FBI was brought in to investigate. The victims were largely native men traveling to the town from smaller villages, according to the Anchorage Daily News.

The FBI looked into about 20 cases, finding alcohol and frigid temperatures to be causes. Nine bodies were never found.

"The Fourth Kind," which comes out Friday, uses the disappearances as a jumping-off point for an alien abduction yarn, using "archived footage" to create an atmosphere of documentary realism. It's not a new idea; "The Blair Witch Project" pulled off the concept effectively, and the recent "Paranormal Activity" uses handheld cameras for a cinema verite look.

But unlike "Paranormal," "The Fourth Kind" literally announces its validity, taking Nome's documented unexplained disappearances and making the case for alien abductions.

The film does rely very heavily on the tagline "What do you believe?" letting viewers decide for themselves what's real and what's Hollywood, but it also conflates the two for its convenience.

For example, the title itself is derived from a "scale of measurement" that was "developed in 1972" to categorize alien encounters, best known through its use in Steven Spielberg's "Close Encounters of the Third Kind." (On the scale, the first kind of encounter is defined as a UFO sighting; the second, collected evidence of extraterrestrials; and the third kind is contact.)

However, Paul Halpern, a physics professor at the University of the Sciences in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, who has studied the possibility of extraterrestrial life, doubts its validity.

"Honestly, I've only ever heard of it through fiction," he said, "not as an actual scientific scale of measurement."

The "fourth kind" is alien abduction, the hardest encounter to prove until now, said NBC Universal, parent company of distributor Universal Studios, in a press release. First time writer/director Olatunde Osunsanmi was unavailable for comment, but according to a fact sheet handed out at screenings, he discovered the disappearances that plagued Nome in 2004 when a friend told him of a Dr. Abigail Tyler.

During sleep studies "in fall 2000, the therapist's patients, under hypnosis, exhibited behaviors that suggested encounters with nonhumans," the statement read.

According to the press material, Tyler recorded footage depicting disturbing scenes, which director Osunsanmi uses alongside re-enactments starring Milla Jovovich and Will Patton in a split screen. To further push the reality bit, Jovovich informs the audience right up front that she "plays the role of Dr. Abigail Tyler," and that the images they are about to see are very disturbing.

"I think that it's fun to have fictional movies about the possibility of extraterrestrial life, but it's important for the public to understand the difference between science and science fiction," Halpern said. "Almost all scientists I know believe that there's no evidence of encounters between humans and alien life forms. Right now, astronomers are [still] trying to find evidence of very simple life forms in space."

Film reviewer Todd Gilchrist said he tried to watch the movie with an open mind.

"I was receptive to the possibility that it could be real, [and] I think that it was convincing enough to make it kind of scary-fun," the reviewer said.

"Within five minutes of walking out of the movie and talking with my girlfriend and somebody else, the whole movie sort of logically falls apart in terms of authenticity," he said.

But, Gilchrist added, "it's not deceptive; it's what their marketing campaign is."

But why market fiction as truth in the first place?

Found footage and documentary-esque filmmaking changes the atmosphere of a film, Gilchrist said. Instead of walking into a trap a la "Saw," viewers get a "really creepy atmosphere even when nothing is going on." Recently, the latter has been more successful than the former, with "Paranormal Activity" topping the latest "Saw" at the box office.

"People want to see themselves as specifically connected or reflected in entertainment," he said. "Something like 'Paranormal Activity' or 'The Fourth Kind' sort of accesses that desire to be recognized or famous."

For example, by casting Jovovich the movie deliberately pretties up Tyler, which makes the found footage seem all the more true, Gilchrist said.

"The most authentic thing in the movie is how the real woman is much less attractive than Milla Jovovich, which automatically gives that woman's case some authenticity," Gilchrist said. "She's accessible in a normal, human way."

But whether it's real or not, is it scary? It all depends on what you believe, said film reviewer Brad Brevet.

"The audience has to ask themselves, 'Am I going to believe everything is real because Milla Jovovich told me it is?' Your answer to that question decides how effective the rest of the film is going to be," he said. "I was skeptical from the start but [also] questioning, which is one of the reasons I got a few chills."

In Nome, however, Michels wishes people would get a better grip on the difference between fiction and reality, not to mention geography.

"We watched the trailer on the Internet, and the first scenes are these majestic mountains with these trees, which is totally not Nome," she said, laughing. "We're pretty flat, right by the ocean."

According to, "The Fourth Kind" was filmed in Bulgaria.

"What they should've done," Michels said, still laughing, "is premiered here at the local theater."


Now discussing:

The Fourth Kind

For the type of alien encounter, see Close encounter.

2009 American film

The Fourth Kind is a 2009 American science fictionpsychological thriller film[2] directed by Olatunde Osunsanmi and featuring a cast of Milla Jovovich, Elias Koteas, Corey Johnson, Will Patton, Charlotte Milchard, Mia Mckenna-Bruce, Yulian Vergov, and Osunsanmi. The title is derived from the expansion of J. Allen Hynek's classification of close encounters with aliens, in which the fourth kind denotes alien abductions.

The film is a pseudodocumentary - purporting to be a dramatic re-enactment of true events that occurred in Nome, Alaska - in which a psychologist uses hypnosis to uncover memories of alien abduction from her patients, and finds evidence suggesting that she may have been abducted as well. At the beginning of the film, Jovovich informs the audience that she will be playing a character based on a real person named Abigail Tyler, and that the film will feature archival footage of the real Tyler. The "Abigail Tyler" seen in the archival footage is played by Charlotte Milchard, and at various points throughout the film, the archival footage scenes and accompanying dramatic re-enactments are presented side by side.[3][4]

The film received negative reviews and grossed $47.7 million worldwide.[5]


In the film's present day, Chapman University hosts a televised interview with psychologist Dr. Abigail "Abbey" Tyler (Milla Jovovich/Charlotte Milchard). She describes a series of events that occurred in Nome, Alaska that culminate in an alleged alien abduction in October 2000.

In a re-enactment of events occurring in August 2000, Abbey's husband, Will (Yulian Vergov), is mysteriously murdered one night in his sleep, leaving her to raise their two children, Ashley (Mia Mckenna-Bruce) and Ronnie (Raphaël Coleman).

Abbey tapes hypnotherapy sessions with three patients who have the same experience: every night a white owl stares at them through their windows. Abbey hypnotizes two of them, and both recount similar terrifying stories of creatures attempting to enter their homes. Tommy Fisher (Corey Johnson), her first patient to go under hypnosis, refuses to admit what he sees and returns home. Later that night, Abbey is called by the police to Tommy's house, where she finds him holding his wife and their two children at gunpoint. He insists that he remembers everything and keeps asking what "Zimabu Eter" means. Despite Abbey's attempts to get Tommy to put his gun down, he shoots his family and turns the gun on himself.

After hearing the similarities in their stories, Abbey suspects these patients may have been victims of an alien abduction. There is evidence that she herself may have been abducted, when an assistant gives her a tape recorder which plays the sound of something entering her home and attacking her. The attacker speaks an unknown language, and Abbey has no memory of the incident. Abel Campos (Elias Koteas), a colleague from Anchorage, is suspicious of the claims. Later, Abbey calls upon Dr. Awolowa Odusami (Hakeem Kae-Kazim), a specialist in ancient languages who was a contact of her late husband, to identify the mysterious language on the tape. Odusami identifies it as Sumerian.

Another, more willing patient named Scott (Enzo Cilenti) wishes to communicate. He admits that there was no owl and speaks of "them", but cannot remember anything further, but does say that he knows why Tommy did what he did. Later, he insists Abbey come to his home to hypnotize him, to get something seemingly horrific out of his head. While he is under hypnosis, he suddenly jerks upright and begins hovering above his bed, while a distorted electronic voice coming out of his mouth tells Abbey in Sumerian to immediately end her study. Later, Sheriff August (Will Patton) arrives, telling her that Scott had three upper vertebrae completely severed from his experience, and was completely paralyzed from the neck down. Believing Abbey is responsible, August tries to arrest her but Campos comes to her defense and confirms her story. August instead places her under guard inside her house.

The dash-cam footage of a police officer watching Abbey's house shows a large black triangular object flying into view. The video then distorts, but the officer is heard describing people being pulled out of the house and calls for backup. Deputies rush into the house, finding Ronnie and Abbey, the latter of whom is screaming that Ashley was taken into the sky. August, not believing in her abduction theory, accuses her of her daughter's disappearance and removes Ronnie from her custody. Ronnie goes with them willingly, not believing the abduction theory either.

Abbey undergoes hypnosis in an attempt to make contact with these beings and reunite with her daughter. Campos and Odusami videotape the session, and once hypnotized, it is revealed that Abbey witnessed the abduction of her daughter and also shows scenes of her own abduction, showing part of the abductors ship and it is hinted that they possibly took some human egg cells from Abbey as well. The camera scrambles, and Abbey begs the alien that abducted Ashley to return her. The creature replies, saying that Ashley will never be returned. It then calls itself the savior, then the father and finally ends with "I am ... God". When the encounter ends, Campos and Odusami rush over to the now unconscious Abbey and then notice something out of camera's view. The camera scrambles again, and a volatile voice yells "Zimabu Eter!". When the camera view clears it shows that all three of them are gone.

In the present, Abbey states that all three were abducted during that hypnosis session and no one has any memory of what happened.

The film returns to a re-enactment. Abbey wakes up in a hospital after breaking her neck in the abduction. There, August reveals that Will had actually committed suicide, meaning that Abbey's belief that he was murdered was merely a delusion. Later it is shown that Abbey is paralyzed in a wheelchair due to her neck injury.

In the present, Abbey is asked how anyone can take her claims of alien abduction seriously if she was proven to be delusional about her husband's death. Abbey states that she has no choice but to believe that Ashley is still alive. The interview ends as Abbey breaks down in tears.

In the film's epilogue, it states that Abbey was cleared of all charges against her, leaves Alaska for the East Coast, and her health has deteriorated to the point of requiring constant care. Campos remains a psychologist and Odusami becomes a professor at a Canadian university. Both men, as well as August, refuse to be involved with the interview, while Ronnie remains estranged from Abbey and still blames her for Ashley's disappearance. Ashley herself was never found.



This is the first major film by writer and director Olatunde Osunsanmi, who is a protégé of independent film director Joe Carnahan.[6] The movie is set up as a re-enactment of allegedly original documentary footage. It also uses supposedly "never-before-seen archival footage" that is integrated into the film.[7][4]

The Fourth Kind was shot in Bulgaria and Squamish, British Columbia, Canada. The lush, mountainous setting of Nome in the film bears little resemblance to the actual Nome, Alaska, which sits amidst the fringes of the arctic tree line, where trees can only grow about 8 ft tall due to the permafrost on the shore of the Bering Sea.

To promote the film, Universal Pictures created a website with fake news stories supposedly taken from real Alaska newspapers, including the Nome Nugget and the Fairbanks Daily News-Miner. The newspapers sued Universal, eventually reaching a settlement where Universal would remove the fake stories and pay $20,000 to the Alaska Press Club and a $2,500 contribution to a scholarship fund for the Calista Corporation.[8]

Critical reception[edit]

The Fourth Kind received mainly negative reviews from critics. The film currently has an 18% rating on review aggregatorRotten Tomatoes, based on 114 reviews. The site's consensus reads "While it boasts a handful of shocks, The Fourth Kind is hokey and clumsy and makes its close encounters seem eerily mundane." American critic Roger Ebert gave it one and a half stars out of four, comparing it unfavorably to Paranormal Activity and The Blair Witch Project, while praising Milla Jovovich's acting.[9]

According to the Anchorage Daily News, "Nomeites didn't much like the film exploiting unexplained disappearances of Northwest Alaskans, most of whom likely perished due to exposure to the harsh climate, as science fiction nonsense. The Alaska press liked even less the idea of news stories about unexplained disappearances in the Nome area being used to hype some "kind" of fake documentary".[10]

Owen Gleiberman of Entertainment Weekly called the film "rote and listless."[11]

CNN reviewer Breanna Hare criticized The Fourth Kind for "marketing fiction as truth". Nome, Alaska Mayor Denise Michels called it "Hollywood hooey". According to Michels, "people need to realize that this is a science fiction thriller". Michels also compared the film to The Blair Witch Project, saying, "we're just hoping the message gets out that this is supposed to be for entertainment."[12]


  1. ^The Fourth Kind. Box Office Mojo. Retrieved September 12, 2010.
  2. ^"'The 4th Kind' Banners Go Through Step by Step - Bloody Disgusting".
  3. ^Wainio, Wade. "Sci-Fi: The Fourth Kind may bend truth, but it also bends minds". FanSided (Minute Media). Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  4. ^ abWoerner, Meredith. "Fact Check: Are These Horror Films Really "Based On Actual Events"?". Gizmodo. Gizmodo. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  5. ^"Box Office Mojo: The Fourth Kind". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 2010-09-12.
  6. ^"Milla Gets a Thriller". Wired News. 2008-04-16. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
  7. ^Tyler, Josh (2009-08-13). "The Fourth Kind Trailer: A Movie For Believers". Cinema Blend. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
  8. ^Richardson, Jeff (2008-11-11). "Alaska newspapers, movie studio reach settlement over 'Fourth Kind'". Fairbanks Daily News-Miner. Retrieved 2012-03-16.
  9. ^Ebert, Roger (November 4, 2009). The Fourth Kind (review).Chicago Sun-Times
  10. ^Medred, Craig. "'The Fourth Kind' pays for telling a big fib". Anchorage Daily News. Retrieved 20 August 2021.
  11. ^Entertainment Weekly November 20, 2009 pg. 71.
  12. ^Hare, Breanna. "'The Fourth Kind' of fake?". CNN. Retrieved 23 January 2018.

External links[edit]


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