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  5. Military & Family
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  7. Doctoral Students

Is University of Phoenix an accredited university?

University of Phoenix is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission ( Since 1978, University of Phoenix has been continually accredited by the Higher Learning Commission and its predecessor. University of Phoenix obtained its most recent 10-year Reaffirmation of Accreditation in 2012–13. The Higher Learning Commission conducted an interim Comprehensive Evaluation in 2018, and the next Comprehensive Evaluation for Reaffirmation of Accreditation is scheduled for 2022–23.


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You can explore career options with the Program Finder. Find more than 100 online programs aligned to 300+ occupations. The University also offers certificate programs, as well as individual, test-preparation and non-credit professional development courses.

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What is professional development?

Professional development courses provide instructional opportunities to develop knowledge, build essential skills and expand career paths. Coursework may be general in nature or more focused on professional skills preparation for certification attainment or maintenance.

Professional Development

How can I apply professional development courses to my career?

Professional development courses are a fantastic way to fill the gaps in your skills. University of Phoenix courses cover a variety of topics and are designed to give professionals a greater base of knowledge so they can improve their career opportunities or maintain professional certification. Our courses are also of interest to companies who want a more skilled workforce.

Professional Development

What is Continuing Teacher Education?

Educators must meet state requirements to maintain their license. This may include taking courses to keep your license active, change positions/subject areas or stay knowledgeable on current education topics and standards. Educators can use continuing education for license renewal, for professional development, toward endorsements and pay scale increases, and for personal growth.

Continuing Education

How can I use Continuing Teacher Education in my profession?

Educators can use continuing education for license renewal, for professional development, toward endorsements and pay scale increases, and for personal growth. Our credit-bearing teacher curriculum is designed for new and seasoned educators who want to develop or reinforce their knowledge of classroom concepts and techniques, or to enhance their career.

Continuing Education

What subjects are offered for continuing education and professional development at University of Phoenix?

There are many professional development topics to choose from, including:

  • Accounting and Finance
  • Business
  • Business Intelligence
  • Customer Service
  • Digital Marketing
  • Health Care
  • Human Resources
  • Leadership and Management
  • Marketing
  • Project Management
  • Technology

Continuing Teacher Education courses may include:

  • Administration
  • Early Childhood
  • Special Education
  • Autism
  • English as a Second Language
  • Bilingual
  • Gifted and Talented
  • Technology
  • Leadership
  • Methods of teaching in several different content areas
  • STEM
  • Spanish
  • General education areas like Classroom Management and Foundations of Education
  • School Counseling
  • Reading
  • Career and Technical Education
  • Teaching for Online Classes (K–12 and Higher Education)
  • Para-Education

While widely available, not all programs or courses are available in all locations or in both online and on-campus formats. Please check with a University Enrollment Representative.

Continuing Education

How do I get a record of the courses I've completed?

Professional Development and Continuing Teacher Education courses are documented on transcripts. You can request your transcripts by going to eCampus and looking under the “Program” tab. You can also call the Office of Admissions and Records Service Center at 800.866-3919.

Is University of Phoenix an accredited institution?

University of Phoenix is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission ( Since 1978, University of Phoenix has been continually accredited by the Higher Learning Commission and its predecessor. University of Phoenix obtained its most recent 10-year Reaffirmation of Accreditation in 2012–13. A comprehensive evaluation is scheduled for 2016–17, and the next Reaffirmation of Accreditation is scheduled for 2022–23.

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What are the requirements for transferring to University of Phoenix?

Students must meet the admission requirements for their chosen program. Credits from a regionally or nationally accredited institution may be eligible to transfer, provided that a grade of a C- or better was earned. Transfer credits typically apply toward general education and elective categories. With transfer credits, you can earn your degree faster and for less. Contact an Enrollment Representative for more information specific to your background.

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What kind of financial assistance is available to me?

As a student, you have many options available to fund your education. Some of the most common financial options include Federal Financial Aid, scholarships, grants, the cash plan, the third-party billing plan, the military or government billing plan, tribal funding and third-party private student loans. Learn about each option to determine your eligibility. 

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What will my online classroom and schedule look like?

Our innovative learning platform allows you to ask questions, discuss topics and collaborate with your classmates from around the world. This gives you the ability to work in teams, talk to your instructor and access course materials any time of the day or night. Your schedule will be provided to you by your Academic Counselor and can be assessed within your student portal.

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Can I apply relevant learning, work and life experiences toward credit at University of Phoenix?

Time is money. See if you can save on both. We’ll help you explore up to 10 different opportunities to earn your degree faster, and for less..You may be able to fulfill some elective, interdisciplinary and/or general education courses by going through the Prior Learning Assessment (PLA) process. To be eligible for PLA credits, you must be an undergraduate student who has already been accepted into University of Phoenix. In addition, you must have submitted any transcripts to the University, and you must have remaining general education or elective credits required to earn your degree.

Before submitting an application, we suggest that you contact your Academic Advisor to discuss whether PLA would be beneficial to you and how credits can be applied to your degree program.

PLA credits cannot be applied to associate and bachelor's degree programs in Education.

What are the admission requirements for international students?

Admissions requirements for international students vary depending on the program. Students must meet the English Language Proficiency requirement and, if in the U.S., provide an acceptable visa that does not prohibit educational studies at the University of Phoenix. Please speak to an Enrollment Representative to learn about program-specific requirements.

International Admissions

Do I have to be fluent in English to attend University of Phoenix?

Students must meet the English Language Proficiency requirement (ELP). To meet this, a student must have completed high school in the U.S. or another English-speaking country, have 30+ transferrable semester credits from an approved English-speaking institution or pass an ELP exam from an approved testing agency (Berlitz, TOEFL, TOEIC, Pearson). For more information, contact an International Enrollment Representative.

International Admissions

What are the visa requirements to attend University of Phoenix?

A visa is a document that allows the holder to apply for entry into the United States. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and Department of State (DoS) determine who is eligible to be admitted into the U.S. along with how long they can stay and other conditions of their visit.

Generally visa requirements for students include:

  • You must have a visa that allows you to legally work and attend school in the United States.
  • The visa type, date of issue and country of citizenship must be listed on the admission application. Please verify that the visa is current — expired visas cannot be accepted.
  • Legible copies of visas are acceptable documentation.

Contact an International Enrollment Representative for more information concerning visa requirements.

International Admissions

How is University of Phoenix accredited?

University of Phoenix is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission ( Since 1978, University of Phoenix has been continually accredited by the Higher Learning Commission and its predecessor. University of Phoenix obtained its most recent 10-year Reaffirmation of Accreditation in 2012–13. A comprehensive evaluation is scheduled for 2016–17, and the next Reaffirmation of Accreditation is scheduled for 2022–23.

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How can I transfer my skills to a civilian job?

Military service can provide a solid foundation for career growth. University of Phoenix has resources to help you successfully transition to a new career. With our Phoenix Career Guidance System you can discover career interests, transition your military skills to a civilian career and explore the job market.

Career Services

How can I use my veteran's education benefits?

If you plan to use your veteran’s benefits for your education, you are entitled to a Shopping Sheet in accordance with Executive Order 13607. It provides a breakdown of your education costs so you can compare costs between the institutions you select. It also shows how your benefits and any financial aid are applied to your education. The information provided in the Shopping Sheet is an estimate of your individual education cost and any financial aid for which you might be eligible. This estimate is based on the information you provided in the Financial Plan with Net Price Calculator. Please refer to your financial aid award letter for the actual amount of financial aid awarded.

Our tuition and expenses estimating tool, Financial Plan with Net Price Calculator, will help you create your Financial Plan and Shopping Sheet.

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How do I get started if I’m currently overseas?

Our military certified enrollment representatives are available by phone to help guide you. All you need is a reliable internet connection and our staff can provide you with information about degree programs, point you to resources designed to help you make decisions and show you how to apply for admission.

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Where can I find my University of Phoenix transcript?

Official and unofficial transcripts can be requested through our student website or by mail, fax or phone. To order by phone, call the Office of Admissions and Records Support Center at 800.866.3919. Be sure to check your unofficial transcript to make sure your coursework and grades have posted before ordering your official transcript.

You can request an electronic transcript or pay an additional fee for overnight delivery of a paper transcript if you need expedited service. Please note, some limitations apply to overnight deliveries.

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If you’re having problems logging into your eCampus account, please contact technical support for assistance at: 1-877-832-4867 OR visit

How can I get involved and expand my professional network?

As a graduate of University of Phoenix, you are automatically a part of the University of Phoenix Alumni Association. To access the benefits on the alumni website just log in using your eCampus login credentials. Whether you’re a recent graduate or a long-time University of Phoenix alum, the Alumni Association is your gateway to your alumni network — 1,023,112 strong, and growing.

You can also connect with 204,366 of your fellow alumni on the UOPX Alumni Association Facebook page or network with fellow alumni in real time on PhoenixConnect®.

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Where can I find career resources?

You have a team of advisors dedicated to helping you build a personalized career plan you can stick with. While outside career advising can cost over $200 an hour, at University of Phoenix it’s built right into your degree at no added cost, for life.

Career Resources

How do I complete my doctoral program?

University of Phoenix doctoral programs are primarily online, with three required face-to-face residency experiences available in select cities in the United States. The Post-Master’s Educational Specialist degree does not have a residency.

Doctoral FAQs

What kind of research tools does University of Phoenix provide?

You can find faculty and other students who share your discipline at our SAS research centers. These scholarly communities help students and faculty find others with similar research interests and build relationships. You can take advantage of research courses that help to inform you about methodologies, writing style and requirements. If you have specific questions that require a quick response while you write your dissertation, you can contact a research faculty member who will answer within 24–48 hours.

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What are the doctoral program admission requirements?

To enter a doctoral degree program, you must:

  • Have a master’s degree from a regionally or an approved nationally accredited — or candidate for accreditation — college or university or an equivalent graduate degree earned at a recognized foreign institution.
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  • Have a record of current or past employment in a supervisory or management position. Certain doctoral degree programs may have program-specific work experience requirements. Please contact an Enrollment Representative to learn more about program-specific work experience requirements.
  • Be a citizen or permanent resident of the United States or hold an approved, valid visa if residing or attending a residency in the United States.
  • Have access to a research library. (Enrolled students have access to University of Phoenix libraries.)
  • Have a signed University of Phoenix hardware/software agreement.
  • Not have been expelled from a previous institution.

Complete all required forms for admission and submit an official master’s degree posted transcript.

Admission Requirements

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Zachary Hall | MBA


Welcome to the knife store with the largest in-stock, on-hand selection of knives for sale! If it cuts, we carry it.

SMKW is your source for Case knives, Buck knives, SOG knives, Victorinox Swiss Army Knives, Microtech, Gerber knives, Kershaw knives, Benchmade knives, Spyderco knives, CRKT knives, Cold Steel Knives, TOPS knives, ESEE knives, and Rough Ryder knives. SMKW is one of the oldest and largest knife retailers. Sign up for our monthly catalog and visit our retail showroom. Our prices and quality can't be beaten, our stock is on-hand, and FedEx shipping is standard. 

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By subscribing to SMKW text messaging, you consent to receive recurring autodialed marketing text messages to the mobile number used at opt-in. Consent is not a condition of purchase. Msg. freq may vary. Msg & data rates may apply. Reply HELP for help or STOP to 82643 to opt out. Reply with birthday MM/DD/YYYY to verify legal age of 18+ in order to receive texts.

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Contact Kentucky Gun Co Customer Service

Kentucky Gun Co Phone Numbers and Emails

  • (502) 348-3594
  • (218) 752-1875
  • (248) 752-4875
  • +1 236 252 3625

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Kentucky Gun Co Contact Information

Corporate Office Address:

401 Glenwood Dr



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Kentucky Gun Co FAQ

Sign up for the KyGunCo newsletter today. Kentucky Gun Co will consider any firearm in trade for another firearm. Please bring the firearm in Company's retail store or email photos of the firearm to [email protected] for an estimate. Keep in mind, Company's offer will be minimally less than the actual value of the firearm. If the item is shipped to an address in Kentucky, or The Customer pick the item up at Kentucky Gun Co's' store front, the there will be a sales tax. If the item is shipped out of Kentucky, The Company only collect sales tax if The User's state requires Website to do so. Currently, Indiana is the only state that has made this a requirement. The individual purchasing the Class III item would have to contact their local Class III dealer and have them fax their FFL and SOT license. Kentucky Gun Co will complete a Form 3 for the transfer from KYGUNCO to their Class III dealer.

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Kentucky Gun Co is ranked 60 out of 204 in Weapons category

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ABC Apologizes for Showing Video From U.S. Gun Range in Report on Syria

The video appeared in a report on Turkish attacks in northern Syria. ABC News did not specify how the error had occurred.

ABC News apologized Monday for mistakenly running a video that apparently was taken at a gun range in Kentucky with a report about Turkish attacks in northern Syria.

“We’ve taken down video that aired on ‘World News Tonight Sunday’ and ‘Good Morning America’ this morning that appeared to be from the Syrian border immediately after questions were raised about its accuracy,” the network said in a statement on Monday. “ABC News regrets the error.”

A representative for ABC News declined to comment on how the mix-up had happened.

The clip that accompanied the reports on the bombings showed explosions and smoke dominating the dark horizon. Tom Llamas, an anchor with ABC News’s “World News Tonight” spoke over the footage, which someone reposted on YouTube. “This video, right here, appearing to show Turkey’s military bombing Kurd civilians in a Syrian border town,” Mr. Llamas said.

A number of people on social media noted on Monday that the clip strongly resembled a video uploaded to YouTube in April 2017. The title “Knob Creek night shoot 2017” referred to an evening machine gun event held by the Knob Creek Gun Range in Kentucky.

An employee who answered the phone at the gun range on Monday but would not give his name, said that he was not sure who had shot the video. But he said he recognized it as having been taken at the facility.

News organizations have various systems for vetting footage to verify authenticity. Claire Wardle, executive director of First Draft, an organization that fights online disinformation, said that this sort of situation should be “relatively easy” to avoid by using tools like reverse-image search.

“ABC has a really good team that does this work,” she wrote via email. “But I assume that on a Sunday, when they were probably stretched for staff, they failed to do the necessary verification checks, and under the pressure that comes with breaking news, this got through.”

It was hardly the first time that an incorrect image or video clip had made its way into a news report. Such errors risk undermining coverage that has been properly sourced.

A number of right-leaning social media accounts and news outlets, like The Washington Examiner, wrote that the incorrectly sourced clip raised broader questions about the trustworthiness of coverage.

President Trump also weighed in, on Twitter:

ABC’s mistake came one week after President Trump vowed to clear the way for a Turkish military operation in northern Syria, leaving America’s longtime Kurdish allies feeling betrayed and unleashing chaos.

On Wednesday Turkey launched a ground and air assault along the border, killing more than 20 Kurdish fighters and forcing civilians to flee. In a joint statement on Monday, 28 European ministers condemned Turkey’s military action, stating that it “undermines the stability and the security of the whole region, resulting in more civilians suffering and further displacement and severely hindering access to humanitarian assistance.”


Gun phone number company kentucky

In what appears to be a tragic accident, actor Alec Baldwin shot dead a cinematographer on Oct 21, 2021, while discharging a prop gun on set in New Mexico.

It is too early to speculate what went wrong during the filming of the Western movie “Rust.” But the incident, in which the film’s director was also injured, highlights a simple fact: Guns are commonplace in Hollywood films.

As scholars of mass communication and risk behavior, we have studied the growing prevalence of firearms on screen and believe that the more guns there are in movies, the more likely it is that a shooting will occur – both in the “reel” world and in the “real” world.

Gun violence in Hollywood movies has increased dramatically over time, especially in movies accessible to teens. Indeed, our research shows that acts of gun violence in PG-13 movies nearly tripled over the 30 years between 1985 (the year after the rating was introduced) and 2015. Similar trends have been observed in popular TV dramas, with the rate of gun violence depicted in prime time dramas doubling between 2000 and 2018.

Of course, depictions of violence in the entertainment industry are nothing new. The use of guns in Hollywood films has a long tradition going back to the gangster movies of the 1930s. Guns were also featured heavily in the Western TV shows of the 1950s.

The upsurge in the depiction of guns in movies and TV shows is likely related to the realization that violence draws audiences and guns are an easy way to dramatize violence. And here filmmakers have a willing accomplice in the gun industry.

Media outlets are averse to allowing gun advertising on TV or mass-circulated magazines. But guns are amply displayed in top-grossing movies and popular TV dramas.

We know that the gun industry pays production companies to place its products in their movies. They are rewarded with frequent appearances on screen, so much so that in 2010 the firearm company Glock won a “lifetime achievement award for product placement,” with a citation noting that Glocks appeared in 22 box office No. 1 films during that year.

The payoff for gun companies can be great – prominent placement in high-profile films can result in a significant bump in sales for gun models.

Making guns ‘cool’

But the potential harm caused by guns in Hollywood goes far beyond the occasional tragic accident on set. Studies show that simply seeing a gun can increase aggression in the viewer through what is called the “weapons effect.”

Violent movies and TV programs, which often contain guns, can likewise increase aggression and make viewers numb to the pain and suffering of others, numerous studies show.

And children might be especially vulnerable – which makes it all the more notable that the prevalence of guns in PG-13 movies has increased over the decades.

Younger viewers will often identify movie characters as being “cool” and want to imitate their behavior.

This was seen with smoking on screen: Children who see movie characters smoke cigarettes are more likely to smoke themselves. A similar effect was observed with children who watched movie characters drink alcohol.

In a study conducted by one of us, pairs of children ages 8 to 12 were first randomly assigned to watch a PG-rated movie clip containing guns or the same movie clip with the guns edited out.

They were then put in a room that contained several toys and games, while being observed by a hidden camera.

A cabinet in the room contained a real, but disabled, 9mm handgun that had been modified with a digital counter to record the number of times children pulled the trigger.

Most children (72%) opened the drawer and found the gun. But children who watched the movie clip with guns in it held the handgun longer – on average 53.1 seconds compared with 11.1 seconds for those who watched a clip without guns. They also pulled the trigger more times – 2.8 times on average compared with 0.01 times for those who watched the movie clip without guns.

Some children engaged in very dangerous behaviors with the real gun, such as pulling the trigger while pointing the gun at themselves or their partner. One boy pointed the real gun out the laboratory window at people in the street.

The kind of gun violence featured in Hollywood movies tends to highlight the justifieduse of those weapons. When characters use guns to defend themselves or family, their use is seen as acceptable.

This has the result of encouraging viewers to think that using guns for the protection of self or others is virtuous.

Reflecting or glamorizing violence?

The United States is the most heavily armed society in the world. Although consisting of about 4% of the world’s population, U.S. citizens possess almost half of the world’s guns.

In featuring guns so heavily, there is a danger that Hollywood is not merely reflecting society – it is encouraging firearm sales.

While incidents of actors and film production staff being injured or killed through accidental shootings are thankfully rare, the likelihood of fatal shootings – accidental or otherwise – in the real world goes up with every sale of the kinds of guns featured by Hollywood.

[Over 110,000 readers rely on The Conversation’s newsletter to understand the world.Sign up today.]

My 50 Cal Exploded

Long rifle

"Kentucky Rifle" redirects here. For the American Western film, see Kentucky Rifle (film).

For the caliber, see .22 Long Rifle.

Muzzle-loaded long gun

The long rifle, also known as longrifle, Kentucky rifle, Pennsylvania rifle, or American longrifle, was one of the first commonly used rifles for hunting and warfare.[1] It is characterized by an unusually long barrel, a development in American rifles that was uncommon in European rifles of the same period.

The long rifle is an early example of a firearm using rifling (spiral grooves in the bore), which caused the projectile (commonly a round lead ball) to spin around the axis of its motion. This increased the stability of its trajectory and dramatically improved accuracy over contemporary smooth bore muskets, which were cheaper and more common. Rifled firearms saw their first major combat use in the American colonies during the French and Indian War, and later the American Revolution in the eighteenth century. Then War of 1812, Texan Revolution, and American Civil War.

Until the development of the Minié ball in the middle of the 19th century, the main disadvantages of a rifle compared to a musket were a slower reload time due to the use of a tighter fitting lead ball and greater susceptibility to the fouling of the bore after prolonged use - such fouling would eventually prevent loading altogether, rendering the weapon useless until thoroughly cleaned. The adoption of the Minié ball essentially nullified these disadvantages and allowed the rifle to completely replace the musket.

The long rifle was made popular by German gunsmiths who immigrated to America, bringing with them the technology of rifling from where it originated. The accuracy achieved by the long rifle made it an ideal tool for hunting wildlife for food in colonial America.


From a flat bar of soft iron, hand forged into a gun barrel; laboriously bored and rifled with crude tools; fitted with a stock hewn from a maple tree in the neighboring forest; and supplied with a lock hammered to shape on the anvil; an unknown smith, in a shop long since silent, fashioned a rifle which changed the whole course of world history; made possible the settlement of a continent; and ultimately freed our country of foreign domination. Light in weight; graceful in line; economical in consumption of powder and lead; fatally precise; distinctly American; it sprang into immediate popularity; and for a hundred years was a model often slightly varied but never radically changed.

— Captain John G. W. Dillin, The Kentucky Rifle[2]

The long rifle was developed on the American frontier in southeastern Pennsylvania, in the early 1700s. It continued to be developed technically and artistically until it passed out of fashion in the 19th century. The long rifle was the product of German gunsmiths who immigrated to new settlements in south eastern Pennsylvania in the early 1700s, and later in Virginia and other territories, reproducing early Jäger (anglicized Jaeger) rifles used for hunting in Germany in the 17th and early 18th century.[3] Tax records from these locales indicate the dates these gunsmiths were in business.[4] Strong pockets of long rifle use and manufacture continued in the Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio and North Carolina well into the 20th century as a practical and efficient firearm for those rural segments of the nation. Long rifles could be made entirely by hand and hand-operated tooling, in a frontier setting.[5]

Initially the weapon of choice on the frontier was the smooth bore musket, or trade gun, built in factories in England and France and shipped to the colonies for purchase. Gradually, long rifles became more popular due to their longer effective range. While the smooth bore musket had an effective range of less than 100 yards, a rifleman could hit a man-sized target at a range of 200 yards or more. The price for this accuracy was longer reloading time. While the musket could be reloaded in approximately 20 seconds, the long rifle required more time for the average hunter.

In Pennsylvania, the earliest gunsmiths that can be documented are Robert Baker and Martin Meylin.[6] Robert Baker formed a partnership with his son, Caleb and on August 15, 1719 erected a gun boring mill on Pequea Creek. In the tax records of Berks County, Pennsylvania, there were several gunsmiths plying their trade along the banks of the Wyomissing Creek.[4][7]

Martin Meylin's Gunshop was built in 1719, and it is here that the Mennonite gunsmith of Swiss-German heritage crafted some of the earliest, and possibly the first, Pennsylvania Rifles.[8] No single rifle has been found to date to be signed by Martin Meylin. Although two have been attributed to him, the one in the Lancaster Historical Society has been found to be a European musket of a later date - and the other with a date of 1705 has been found to be a forgery as the Meylins didn't arrive in America until 1710. The Martin Meylin Gunshop still stands today in Willow Street, Pennsylvania, on Long Rifle Road. An archaeological dig performed in 2005 by Millersville University around the so-called Meylin gunshop found no evidence of gunmaking activity among the thousands of artifacts found - only blacksmithing artifacts were found.[9][10] The Lancaster County Historical Society has an original Pennsylvania Long Rifle smithed by Meylin that was passed down within the family for seven generations before being donated to the society in the middle of the twentieth century. This particular rifle was analyzed and the barrel removed during the Lancaster Long Rifle Exhibit at Landis Valley Farm Museum, Lancaster, Pennsylvania in 2005. The six experts on hand found the barrel was European and the stock itself dated from a later period than 1710-1750. The initials on the barrel - "MM" were found to be added later than any other part of the gun, therefore it was concluded that the rifle in the Lancaster County Historical Society could not have been made by either son or father named Martin Meylin. A document describing the history of Meylin, the Gunshop, and archeology of the shop is available online from Millersville University.[11]

Some historians[12] have written that the role of Martin Meylin as one of the earliest gunsmiths in Lancaster is not clear. The argument is that the will of Martin Meylin Sr. makes no mention of gunsmith items while the will of Martin Meylin Jr. is replete with gunsmith items, and thus the reference to Meylin as a gunsmith is more properly placed on the son. In any case, no rifle has been found to be positively attributed to any Meylin.

There is documentation stating that the first high quality long rifles were from a gunsmith named Jacob Dickert, who moved with his family from Germany to Berks County, Pennsylvania in 1740. The name 'Dickert Rifle' was considered a 'brand name' and the name 'Kentucky rifle' was not coined until much later in history (circa 1820s) and became the "nickname" of this rifle. The reason for this is primarily because Dickert made rifles for the Continental Army and later had a contract dated 1792 to furnish rifles to the United States Army.[4] The rifle is sometimes referred to as the "Deckard / Deckhard" rifle, as descendants of Jacob Dickert used these variations, as shown by census documents, marriage and death certificates. Nearly all descendants of Jacob Dickert go by the surname "Deckard", and are mostly located in Indiana and Missouri.

Among documented working rifle makers are Adam Haymaker, who had a thriving trade in the northern Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, the Moravian gunshops at Christian's Spring in Pennsylvania, John Frederick Klette of Stevensburg, Virginia,[13] and in the Salem area of North Carolina.[citation needed] All three areas were busy and productive centers of rifle making by the 1750s. The Great Wagon Road was a bustling frontier thoroughfare, and rifle shops traced this same route - from eastern Pennsylvania, down the Shenandoah Valley, and spilling into both the Cumberland Gap into Kentucky and the Yadkin River (Salem) area of North Carolina.

The settlers of western Virginia (Kentucky), Tennessee, and North Carolina soon gained a reputation for hardy independence and rifle marksmanship as a way of life, further reinforced by the performance of riflemen in the American Revolution, especially Morgan's Riflemen, who were pivotal in both the Battle of Saratoga and the Battle of Cowpens, as well as the War of 1812. In that war, the long rifle gained its nickname the Kentucky Rifle, after a popular song "The Hunters of Kentucky," about Andrew Jackson and his victory at the Battle of New Orleans.[citation needed] The long rifle also was used by the Texans in their War for Independence from Mexico.[14]

The reason for the long rifle's characteristic long barrel is a matter of adaptation to the new world by the German immigrant gunsmiths. The German gunsmiths working in America were very familiar with German rifles, which seldom had barrels longer than 30 in., and were large caliber rifles using large amounts of lead. The new world forests were vast and required hunters to carry more of their supplies with them. The smaller caliber rifles gave them more ammunition and reduced the amount of weight they needed to carry on a hunt. The longer barrel gave the black powder more time to burn, increasing the muzzle velocity and accuracy. A rule of thumb used by some gunsmiths was to make the rifle no longer than the height of a customer's chin because of the necessity of seeing the muzzle while loading. The longer barrel also allowed for finer sighting. By the 1750s it was common to see frontiersmen carrying the new and distinctive style of rifle.[5]


In 1792 the US Army began to modify the long rifle, shortening the barrel length to 42 inches in their 1792 contract rifle. The Lewis and Clark expedition carried an even shorter version, 33-36 inches, similar to the Harpers Ferry Model 1803 which began production six months after Lewis paid the arsenal a visit. The Model 1803 resembles what became the 'plains rifle'.

The "plains rifle" or "Hawken rifle" was a shorter rifle more suitable for carrying on horseback. It was popular among mountain men and North American fur trappers in the 19th century. The Hawken brothers (Samuel and Jacob) were one of a number of famous gunsmiths active in St. Louis in the 1830s-1860s. Many renowned gunsmiths such as Horace (H.E.) Dimick and J. P. Gemmer produced powerful and portable "short" rifles for the Rocky Mountain fur trade, overland exploration, and the transcontinental immigrant trains. The plains rifle combined accuracy with portability in a more compact package than the extreme long guns from which it had evolved. While many plains rifles were built to fire heavy rounds against dangerous game, more were bored around the .40 calibre range for medium game hunting. long rifles tended to be slimmer and more elegant than the later, more massive, and shorter-barreled Hawken variant rifles. The Hawken rifle evolved from the long rifle for use against larger, more dangerous game encountered in the American West. For firing heavier and larger diameter bullets and heavier powder loads, the barrel wall thickness was necessarily strengthened, and the barrel length of the Hawken was shortened to keep the carrying weight manageable.


Artistically, the long rifle is known for its graceful stock, often made of curly maple, and its ornate decoration, decorative inlays, and an integral, well-made patch box that was built into the stock.[15] The decorative arts of furniture making, painting, silver smithing, gunsmithing, etc. all took their style cues from the prevailing trends of the day, and as in most things the fashion was set in Paris. Baroque and later rococo motifs found their way into all the decorative arts, and can be seen in the acanthus leaf scroll work so common on 18th century furniture and silver.

Originally rather plain, by the 1770s every surface of the rifle could have applied artwork. An accomplished gunsmith had to be a skilled blacksmith, whitesmith, wood carver, brass and silver founder, engraver, and wood finisher. European shops at the time had significant specialization of the trades, leading to separate tradesmen building each rifle. The American frontier had no such luxury, and quite often only one gunmaker would make the entire rifle, a process almost unheard of in 18th century trade practice. The flintlock action, with its spring mechanism, and single-action trigger, though, was often purchased in bulk by gunsmiths from England, and then fabricated with skill into an elaborate rifle. Early locks were imported but domestic manufacturing of locks increased in America among the more skilled gunsmiths in later years.

To conserve lead on the frontier, smaller calibers were often preferred, ranging often from about .32 to .45 cal. As a rifle became worn from use, with accumulated corrosion from firing black powder causing the bore to enlarge, it was not uncommon to see many rifles re-bored and re-rifled to larger calibers, to keep the rifle shooting accurately. Many copies of historical long rifles are seen with a bore of around .50 caliber.

The long rifle is said by modern experts[who?] to have a range of 80 to 100 yards for the average user. An experienced shooter can extend the median range of the long rifle to 200-300 yards.[16]

Although less commonly owned or seen on the frontier, the long rifle style was also used on flintlock pistols during the same era.[citation needed] These pistols were often matched in caliber to a long rifle owned by the same user, to enable firing a common-sized and common-patched round lead ball.[citation needed] With the same graceful stock lines and barrel style, and craftsmanship, they were noticeably slimmer and had a longer rifled barrel with better sights than had been seen on the earlier Colonial style flintlock pistols. Dueling pistol sets in the long rifle style were also made, sometimes in a cased set, for wealthy gentlemen.

Decline and rebirth[edit]

By the 20th century, there was little traditional long rifle making left except in isolated pockets in the Appalachian mountains.[17] Few men were left who could entirely build a long rifle. Popular interest in shooting as a sport as well as the sesquicentennial of the United States' independence from Britain in 1925-33 spurred interest in the origins of the long rifle. One of the first evidences of this renewed interest was the seminal work in 1924 by Capt. John G.W. Dillin The Kentucky Rifle. Early 20th century pioneers of long rifle culture were Walter Cline, Horace Kephart, Ned Roberts, Red Farris, Hacker Martin, Bill Large, Jack Weichold, Ben Hawkins, D.C. Addicks, L.M. Wolf, Dave Taylor, Win Woods, and Alvin Wagner.[18]

Many men throughout the remainder of the 20th century worked to expand our knowledge of the long rifle and how to recreate it in the 18th and 19th century manner. Foremost among these were Joe Kindig Jr, George Shumway, Earl Lanning, Wallace Gusler, John Bivins, Garry Brumfield and many others.[18] In 1965, Wallace Gusler, as the first master of the Gunsmith shop in Colonial Williamsburg, was the first to recreate a long rifle in modern times using 18th century tools and techniques. The 1968 film "Gunsmith of Williamsburg" documented the production of his second, all handmade, long rifle.[19] This film has been re-released on DVD and is available from a number of online sources. Since that time, many other makers have trained by these men and many other pioneers of the rebirth of the long rifle culture. The Gunsmith Shop in Colonial Williamsburg under Wallace Gusler and Gary Brumfield produced Dave Wagoner, Jon Laubach, George Suiter, Clay Smith, and Richard Frazier. These are the only men who have emerged from the Gunshop to date who have produced an all handmade rifle.[20] In addition to his influence in his popular series of articles for Rifle Magazine[21] and his involvement with the Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts (MESDA) John Bivins trained the outstanding gunmakers Jim Chambers and Mark Silver. Then there were other standouts like Earl Lanning, Keith Casteel, Hershel and Frank House, Jack Brooks, Jud Brennon, Ron Ehlert, Robert Harn, Troy Roope and many more. Their work and that of others can be seen in the book: Three Centuries of Tradition: The Renaissance of Custom Sporting Arms in America, published by The Minneapolis Institute of Arts and Scala Publishers, Ltd.[22]

While there have been many great builders over the past 50 years who have helped revive the recreation of the historically correct long rifle, there are many talented newer builders such as Allen Martin, Eric Kettenburg, Jim Kibler, Mark Wheland, Ken Eckenroth, Chuck Dixon, and others. There are more and more builders all the time as evidenced by, a group of forums serving the interests of builders of traditional muzzleloading arms, with over 3000 members including most of the top builders alive today.[23] was started in 1997 by Mark Elliott at same time that Gordon Barlow was creating the Contemporary Longrifle Association (CLA). The CLA is a membership organization consisting of students, collectors, and artisans producing contemporary (20th century and later) hand made recreations of long rifles, their accoutrements, and associated arms and crafts of pre-1840 America.[24] The overflow crowds that fill the Lexington, KY Convention Center each August for the CLA annual meeting and show is evidence of the popularity of the contemporary long rifle and traditional crafts. There are also large suppliers for muzzleloading supplies such as Dixie Gun Works[25] and Track of the Wolf[26] as proof of the vibrancy of the contemporary long rifle. Then there are the numerous parts suppliers such as Jim Chambers Flintlocks,[27] R.E. Davis,[28] and L&R,[29] for locks; Rice,[30] Rayl,[31] and others for barrels, Dunlap Woodcraft,[32] Tiger Hunt,[33] and Freddie Harrison[34] among others for stock wood. Then there are hundreds of other individual artisans producing small parts and supplies for resale by the like of Track of the Wolf, Dixie Gunworks, Dixons Muzzleloading Shop, Stonewall Creek Outfitters, Tip Curtis, and others.[35][36]

In popular culture[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^"Kentucky/Pennsylvania Long Rifle Home Page".
  2. ^Dillin, John (1967). The Kentucky Rifle. York, PA: George Shumway. pp. XI. ISBN .
  3. ^Samuel E. Dyke, The Pennsylvania Rifle (Lancaster: Sutter House), 1974. Joe Kindig, Thoughts on the Kentucky Rifle in its Golden Age (York, PA: Trimmer Printing), 1960. Neil L. York, "Pennsylvania Rifle: Revolutionary Weapon in a Conventional War?," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 3:103 (1979): 302-324.
  4. ^ abcKendig Jr., Joe (2002). Thoughts on the Kentucky Rifle in its Golden Age-Second Edition. York, PA: George Shumway. ISBN .
  5. ^ abHindle, Brooke; Lubar, Steven (1986). Engines of Change: The American Industrial Revoluation 1790-1860. Washington, DC and London: The Smithsonian Institution. ISBN .
  6. ^"Rifles of Colonial America" Vol. II, by George Shumway, G. Shumway Publisher. RD7, Box 388b, York PA, 17402
  7. ^Berks County Historical Society
  8. ^City of Lancaster, PA -- HistoryArchived 2011-04-06 at the Wayback Machine,
  9. ^"Martin Meylin's Gunshop Historical Marker".
  10. ^"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-27. Retrieved 2011-01-14.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^[permanent dead link]
  12. ^"History of Lancaster County" by Daniel L. Rupp, Gilbert Hills Pub., Lancaster PA
  13. ^RIFLES OF COLONIAL AMERICA VOLUME II, BY GEORGE SHUMWAY, Copyright 1980 Library of Congress, Catalog Card No.79-63208 Printed by W&M Printing Mechanics Pittsburgh, Pa.
  14. ^Taylor, Lonn. "Remember The Long Rifle" (March 2015 ed.). The Texas Monthly.
  15. ^Willis, Chuck. Weaponry: an illustrated history. New York: Hylas Publishing, 2006. 90-91.
  16. ^Schenawolf, Harry (2015-07-18). "Rifles and Groove-bored Muskets in the American Revolution". Revolutionary War Journal. Retrieved 2021-07-05.
  17. ^Kendall, Arthur (1941). Rifle Making in the Great Smoky Mountains. National Park Service.
  18. ^ abSchiffer, Tom (August 2011). "The Origins and Development of Longrifle Culture, Part 1". Muzzle Blasts. 27 (12): 4–10.
  19. ^Wallace, Gusler (2003). Three Centuries of Tradition: The Renaissance of Custom Sporting Arms in America. Minneapolis, MN: The Minneapolis Institute of Arts. p. 74. ISBN .
  20. ^Gusler, Wallace (2003). Three Centuries of Tradition:The Renaissance of Custom Sporting Arms in America. Minneapolis, MN: The Minneapolis Institute of Arts. p. 72. ISBN .
  21. ^Wolfe, Dave (1989). Gunsmithing Tips & Projects. Prescott, Arizona: Wolfe Publishing Company. pp. 66–71, 115–161. 184–194. ISBN .
  22. ^Silver, Mark (2003). Three Centuries of Tradition: The Renaissance of Custom Sporting Arms in America. Minneapolis, MN: The Minneapolis Institute of Arts. pp. 74–127. ISBN .
  23. ^"".
  24. ^"Contemporary Longrifle Association".
  25. ^"Dixie Gun Works".
  26. ^"Track of the Wolf".
  27. ^"Jim Chambers Flintlocks".
  28. ^"R.E. Davis Company".
  29. ^"L&R Lock Company".
  30. ^"Rice Barrels, Inc".
  31. ^"Buckey Barrels, LLC". Archived from the original on 2009-08-02.
  32. ^"Dunlap Woodcraft".
  33. ^"Tiger Hunt".
  34. ^"Freddie Harrison".
  35. ^Buchele, William (1970). Recreating the American Longrifle. York, PA: George Shumway. ISBN .
  36. ^Alexander, Peter (2002). The Gunsmith of Grenville County. Texarkana, Texas: Scurlock Publishing Co., Inc. ISBN .

External links[edit]


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