What is latency in biology

What is latency in biology DEFAULT


Look up latency or latent in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Latency or latent may refer to:

Science and technology[edit]

  • Latent heat, energy released or absorbed, by a body or a thermodynamic system, during a constant-temperature process
  • Latent variable, a variable that is not directly observed but inferred in statistics

Biology and medicine[edit]

  • Latency period or latent period, the time between development of a disease or exposure to a pathogen, chemical, or radiation and when symptoms first become apparent (e.g. latent tumor) or when the disease becomes infectious (e.g. infectious disease)
  • Latent homosexuality, a term proposed by Sigmund Freud
  • Sleep onset latency, the time it takes a person to fall asleep
  • Virus latency, the ability of a virus to remain dormant


Other uses[edit]

  • Latency stage, a term coined by Sigmund Freud for a stage in a child's psychosexual development
  • Latent Recordings, an independent Canadian record label
  • Nuclear latency, the condition of a country capable of developing nuclear weapons but not yet possessing them

Topics referred to by the same term

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latency




1. a state of seeming inactivity or being latent.

2. the time between the instant of stimulation and the beginning of a response.

3.latency stage.

Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.



1. The state of being latent.

2. In conditioning, or other behavioral experiments, the period of apparent inactivity between the time the stimulus is presented and the moment a response occurs.

3. In psychoanalysis, the period of time from approximately age 5 years to puberty.

Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012



1. The state or quality of being latent.

2. Psychology The latency period.

3. A latent period.

4. The time interval between initiating a query, transmission, or process, and receiving or detecting the results, often given as an average value over a large number of events.

The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.



1. The state of being latent.

2. In conditioning, or other behavioral experiments, the period of apparent inactivity between the time the stimulus is presented and the moment a response occurs.

3. psychoanalysis The period of time from approximately age five to puberty.

4. In physiology, delay between a stimulus and a response, especially with reference to auditory and neural conduction velocity tests.

Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012


The period of inactivity between the time a stimulus is provided and the time a response occurs.

Mentioned in: Pickwickian Syndrome

Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Sours: //medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/
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Viral latency

Viral latency is the ability of a virus to remain dormant within the host cell, sometimes establishing lifelong occult infection. Depending on the virus, the trigger of latency is highly variable but the host cell context is always determining. Latency can stop upon viral genome reactivation, often promoted by stress cellular signals.

The viral genome can remain latent either as an episome or integrated in the host chromosome. The latter allows replication of the viral genome during host cell division. Virus latency is generally maintained by a few viral genes that keep the viral genome silent and escape from host immune system.

Eukaryotic viruses like some herpesviridae or retroviridae are able to infect their host lifelong thanks to latency. This gives them an enormous advantage for disseminating in their host population: about 90% of human population would be infected with varicella-zoster virus.

HHV-2HerpesviridaeSimplexvirusCircular episomeDorsal root gangliaHHV-3HerpesviridaeVaricellovirusCircular episomeDorsal root gangliaHHV-4HerpesviridaeLymphocryptovirusCircular episomeMemory B-cellsHHV-5HerpesviridaeCytomegalovirus Circular episomeMyeloid progenitor cellsHHV-6HerpesviridaeRoseolovirus Probable telomeric integrationMonocytes (HHV-6B)HHV-7HerpesviridaeRoseolovirus Circular episomeCD4+ T-cellsHHV-8HerpesviridaeRhadinovirusCircular episomeB-cellsHIV-1Retroviridae LentivirusProvirusMemory T-cells

An integrated overview of HIV-1 latency
Debbie S Ruelas, Warner C Greene
Cell October 24, 2013; 155: 519-529

HTLV-1Retroviridae Deltaretrovirus ProvirusMemory T-cells

Prokaryotic viruses which display a latent phase are called "temperate", or "lysogenic". The term lysogenic refers to a host phenotype: the bacteria can be spontaneously lysed by the latent phage.
Bacteria such as E. coli and Salmonella contain multiple resident proviruses whose variability in number and type constitutes a major source of diversity between strains . Prokaryotic proviruses usually carry cargo genes encoding traits adaptive to the host, among which are virulence factors found in many bacterial pathogens.

Viruses that have the ability to lie latent within a cell have two options when infecting a cell: they can either enter the latency or the lytic pathway. The decision between lytic and latent pathways is regulated by expression of regulatory proteins part of a genetic switch system, usually repressor(s) as well as proteins controlling the stability of the later. The outcome of the followed pathways depends on the ratio of these key regulators. This ratio may be determined by environmental factors such as the host cell type, its shape, or the nutriment availability.
A well known genetic switch system is the one of bacteriophage lambda which includes at least a repressor of the lytic promoter, a repressor of the latency promotor and two key regulators .

Herpesviruses: latency and reactivation - viral strategies and host response
Bjorn Grinde
J Oral Microbiol 2013; 5

Importance of prophages to evolution and virulence of bacterial pathogens
Louis-Charles Fortier, Ognjen Sekulovic
Virulence July 1, 2013; 4: 354-365

Filamentous phage integration requires the host recombinases XerC and XerD
Kathryn E Huber, Matthew K Waldor
Nature June 6, 2002; 417: 656-659

Control of bacteriophage mu lysogenic repression
Caroline Ranquet, Ariane Toussaint, Hidde de Jong, Genevieve Maenhaut-Michel, Johannes Geiselmann
J. Mol. Biol. October 14, 2005; 353: 186-195

Switches in bacteriophage lambda development
Amos B Oppenheim, Oren Kobiler, Joel Stavans, Donald L Court, Sankar Adhya
Annu. Rev. Genet. 2005; 39: 409-429

A phage P22 gene controlling integration of prophage
H O Smith, M Levine
Virology February 1967; 31: 207-216

The molecular basis of herpes simplex virus latency
Michael P Nicoll, Joao T Proenca, Stacey Efstathiou
FEMS Microbiol. Rev. May 2012; 36: 684-705

Feline immunodeficiency virus latency
Samantha J McDonnel, Ellen E Sparger, Brian G Murphy
Retrovirology 2013; 10: 69

HIV latency
Robert F Siliciano, Warner C Greene
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med September 2011; 1: a007096

Molecular determinants of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 transmission and spread
Michael D Lairmore, Rajaneesh Anupam, Nadine Bowden, Robyn Haines, Rashade A H Haynes 2nd, Lee Ratner, Patrick L Green
Viruses July 2011; 3: 1131-1165

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 non-structural proteins: Requirements for latent infection
Risaku Fukumoto
Cancer Sci. August 2013; 104: 983-988

Cytomegalovirus remains latent in a common precursor of dendritic and myeloid cells
G. Hahn, R. Jores, E. S. Mocarski
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. March 31, 1998; 95: 3937-3942

The latent human herpesvirus-6A genome specifically integrates in telomeres of human chromosomes in vivo and in vitro
Jesse H. Arbuckle, Maria M. Medveczky, Janos Luka, Stephen H. Hadley, Andrea Luegmayr, Dharam Ablashi, Troy C. Lund, Jakub Tolar, Kenny De Meirleir, Jose G. Montoya, Anthony L. Komaroff, Peter F. Ambros, Peter G. Medveczky
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. March 23, 2010; 107: 5563-5568

Latent human herpesvirus 6 infection of human monocytes/macrophages
K. Kondo, T. Kondo, T. Okuno, M. Takahashi, K. Yamanishi
J. Gen. Virol. June 1991; 72:1401-1408

Latent infection of human herpesvirus 7 in CD4(+) T lymphocytes
Fumi Miyake, Tetsushi Yoshikawa, He Sun, Akira Kakimi, Masahiro Ohashi, Shiho Akimoto, Yukihiro Nishiyama, Yoshizo Asano
J. Med. Virol. January 2006; 78: 112-116

The neurotropic herpes viruses: herpes simplex and varicella-zoster
Israel Steiner, Peter G. E. Kennedy, Andrew R. Pachner
Lancet Neurol November 2007; 6: 1015-1028

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

47 entries grouped by protein (browse by keywords)

reorder by strain

1 entry

Trans-activator protein BZLF1 (EB1) (Zebra)

3 entries

Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) (EBV nuclear antigen 1)

3 entries

Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 6 (EBNA-6) (EBV nuclear antigen 6) (Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 3C) (EBNA-3C) (EBV nuclear antigen 3C) (Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 4B) (EBNA-4B) (EBV nuclear antigen 4B)

2 entries

E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase ICP0 (EC (Alpha-0 protein) (Immediate-early protein IE110) (RING-type E3 ubiquitin transferase ICP0) (Trans-acting transcriptional protein ICP0) (VMW110)

1 entry

Regulatory protein cro

1 entry

Repressor protein c (Repc) (CI) (Gene product 1) (gp1) (Mu repressor) (MuR)

14 entries

Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit (R1) (EC (Ribonucleotide reductase large subunit)

15 entries

Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase small subunit (EC (Ribonucleotide reductase small subunit)

1 entry

Repressor protein cI

1 entry

Transcriptional activator II

1 entry

Protease inhibitor III

3 entries

Replication and transcription activator (Rta) (Immediate-early protein Rta)

Sours: https://viralzone.expasy.org/3970
Internet Latency

Vladimir Petrovich finished very quickly and brightly. It was felt that he had not had sex for a long time. Just before the end, he ordered: "On your knees!" and with a growl poured out on her face. He took a member and began, gently squeezing, slowly stroking.


Is in biology latency what

I remember, once on New Year's Eve, at ten years old, my parents received a ticket to a sanatorium. In the summer, in the village of strada. In general, they left for two weeks, left me with Aunt Tamara. She fed me oranges and put me to bed.

What is latency? Why You Should Care

Gyrfalcon did not shake hands with him, it is not accepted, he is a thug, and Uncle Misha is a passenger. Uncle Misha got up with difficulty and, even a little shy, whispered words of gratitude, which Krechet did not even think to listen to, effectively disappearing into the doorway.

Previously, Uncle. Misha was not very interested in what was happening there in the thieves' world, he was not a hillock, and the thieves had no business with him.

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It seemed to me that Light is always stronger than Darkness. We are told that. From childhood we hear that this is Good, and Evil is terrible and disgusting. These concepts have become common nouns.

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