Korean word for older lady

Korean word for older lady DEFAULT

Korean/Personal pronouns

Korean pronouns pose some difficulty to speakers of English due to their complexity. The Korean language makes extensive use of speech levels and honorifics in its grammar, and Korean pronouns also change depending on the social distinction between the speaker and the person or persons spoken to.

In general, Korean speakers avoid using second person singular pronoun, especially when using honorific forms. This is done in several ways:

  • Omit the subject if it can be implied by the context. Most English sentences need subjects, but note Korean sentences do not.
  • Use the appropriate title. For example, talking to a teacher or certain other professionals (e.g. a manager), one may use 선생님 (seonsaengnim, "teacher").
  • Use kinship terms, even to address someone who is not family:
    • 언니 (eonni, "older sister"), used by females to address a slightly elder female
    • 누나 (nuna, "older sister"), used by males to address a slightly elder female
    • 오빠 (oppa, "older brother"), used by females to address a slightly elder male
    • 형 (hyeong, "older brother"), used by males to address a slightly elder male
    • 아줌마 (ajumma, "middle aged woman")
    • 아저씨 (ajeoshi, "middle aged man")
    • 할머니 (halmeoni, "grandmother")
    • 할아버지 (harabeoji, "grandfather")
  • Use the plural 여러분 (yeoreobun, "ladies and gentlemen") where applicable.
  • If talking to someone younger than the speaker, one may use the person's name.

Pronouns[edit | edit source]

The first and second person pronouns have both an informal and a polite (humble/honorific) form. The polite form is used when speaking to someone older or of high social status. 당신 is seen as rude only use if very close(the plain second person singular pronoun) literally means "friend", but is only used as a form of address and is more polite than 친구 (chingu), the usual word for "friend". 당신 is also sometimes used as the Korean equivalent of "dear" as a form of address. Also, whereas uses of other humble forms are straightforward, 당신 must be used only in specific social contexts, such as between two married couples. In that way it can be used in an ironic sense when used between strangers.

Of the third person pronouns, the feminine forms sound awkward and are mostly used when translating texts from other languages. 그 was originally used for both genders and still is in conversation.

Sours: https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Korean/Personal_pronouns

Your Guide To The Palace: 20 Korean Words Every Historical Drama Fan Should Know

Even if you’ve picked up some Korean from K-dramas and K-pop, the language used in historical dramas is a whole different beast. Between the archaic Korean words and the multitude of confusing royal titles (what’s the difference between a Crown Prince and a Grand one, anyway?) there are many Korean phrases that are completely unique to sageuks. So for all you historical drama lovers out there, here’s a collection of some of the most important words, phrases, and titles that you’ll encounter in Sageuk Land!

1. Wang (왕) — King

One of the most important people in a sageuk, if you couldn’t tell from the elaborate robes and fancy headpiece. Oh, and the throne.

2. Wang-myeong/Go-myeong (왕명/고명) — King’s edict

This is the last proclamation that the king delivers before dying, including his will and succession edict: in other words, who he names to take his place on the throne!

3. Manse (만세) — Hurrah!

“Manse!” is a triumphant exclamation that basically means “hurrah!” However, it originally translates to “ten thousand years” (만 means “ten thousand”), and was historically used to wish the king a long life. That’s why you may hear people shout “manse, manse, manmanse!” when a new king ascends the throne. It’s also a pretty dope SEVENTEEN song.

4. Wangbi/Daebi (왕비/대비) — Queen/Queen Dowager

“Wangbi” (왕비) denotes a current wife of the king, whereas “daebi” (대비) is a Queen Dowager: the wife of a deceased king. Because the Queen Dowager is usually the mother of the current king, you may see her addressed as “Queen Mother” in subtitles. If a king is too young to ascend the throne, the Queen Mother often acts as ruler in his place!

5. Jeonha/Mama (전하/마마) — Your Majesty/Royal Highness

These phrases can be used with or instead of royals’ titles as a way of addressing them. That’s why you’ll often hear people call the king “jeonha” (“Your Majesty”) or address a queen as “daebi-mama” (대비마마). “Pyeha” (폐하) is another common way of saying “Your Majesty.”

6. Gama (가마) — Palanquin

Because royals and nobles can hardly be expected to walk places!

7. Wangseja (왕세자) — Crown Prince

The (usually tall, handsome, and charismatic) one who will someday ascend the throne! The oldest son of the king, the Crown Prince is called “wonja” (원자) before he officially assumes the title of “wangseja.” This title is frequently shortened to just “seja” (세자), and coupled with “jeoha” (저하, meaning “His Royal Highness”) to make the often-heard title “seja-jeoha” (세자저하).

Park Bo Gum wears the traditional garment of the Crown Prince for “Moonlight Drawn By Clouds”: a blue robe with a dragon emblem on the front.

8. Seong-eun-i mang-geuk-ha-omnida (성은이 망극하옵니다) — Your grace is immeasurable

This one’s a mouthful! But it’s an important phrase that people use to thank the king for his praise, gifts, or even mercy if he deals out a generously light punishment.

9. Nanjang-hyeong (난장형) — Flogging

Speaking of punishment, here’s a rather brutal one that you’ll see in quite a few sageuks. The recipient is beaten with sticks, often while rolled up in a straw mat. While not a death sentence, “nanjang-hyeong” could result in death depending on the number of hits.

10. Daegun (대군) — Grand Prince

There can only be one Crown Prince, and the king’s other sons with a queen are called “daegun” (대군), or “Grand Prince.” They are often addressed with the term “daegam” (대감), meaning “His Excellency.”

Yoon Shi Yoon is a dazzling “daegun” in the currently-airing drama “Grand Prince”!

11. Gongju (공주) — Princess

While dramas tend to focus on the plights of the princes and their lovers, we can’t forget about the princesses! A princess who is the king’s daughter with a queen is called “gongju,” or often “gongju-mama” (공주마마).

12. Agasshi (아가씨) — Young lady, miss

You’ll often hear servants and maids addressing the daughter of a noble household as “agasshi,” or the shortened version “asshi” (아씨).

YoonA is a picturesque “agasshi” in “The King Loves.”

13. Nu-i/Orabeoni (누이/오라버니) — Older sister/brother

You may be familiar with “noona” and “oppa,” the Korean terms, respectively, that a boy uses to address an older girl and a girl to address an older boy. You won’t find these terms in sageuks, though — instead, you’ll hear the archaic term “nu-i” (누이) for “noona” and “orabeoni” (오라버니) for “oppa.”

Sunny (Yoo In Na) from “Goblin” addresses Kim Shin as “orabeoni” instead of “oppa” — probably a leftover habit from her past life in Goryeo!

14. Yangban (양반) — Noblemen

The yangban were the elite ruling class in the Joseon Dynasty: all the officials and scholars who had a stake in the government. In K-dramas, this includes the good nobles who advise the king and help the royal family… but also the bad ones who try to seize power!

15. Baek-seong (백성) — The subjects, people

With all the palace politics and schemes going on in sageuks, it’s often easy to forget that not everyone back then was a prince or princess. There were also ordinary people: all the subjects of the kingdom!

16. Gol-pum-je-do (골품제도) — Bone Rank System

The Bone Rank System was a caste system in Ancient Silla that segregated society based on people’s relatedness to the throne. The top rank, “Sacred Bones” (“seonggol”/성골), were those who were directly related to royalty on both sides of their family, whereas a “True Bone” (“jingol”/진골) was related to royalty through only one parent. There were at least five additional ranks that determined what jobs people could hold, who they could marry, and even what clothes they could wear.

Some of the young men from “Hwarang” grappled with the strife caused by the rigid caste system.

17. Hwarang (화랑) — Flowering knights

The original flower boys (“hwa”/화 can mean “flower”), the Hwarang were a group of young men in the Silla period that were trained in culture, martial arts, and various scholarly pursuits… and were also known for being extraordinarily good-looking, much like the Hwarang in KBS’s popular drama:

18. Gung (궁) — Palace

Where all the action happens! To be more specific, different parts of the palace have different names: the queen lives in the Central Palace, or “Junggungjeon” (중궁전), while the Crown Prince resides in the Eastern Palace (“Donggung”/동궁). Sometimes these royals are called by the names of their palaces; the Crown Prince, for example, can be addressed as “Donggung.”

19. Gisaeng (기생) — Courtesan

A gisaeng was a female entertainer and courtesan in the Joseon Dynasty. Noblemen and royals often fall for their seductive charms in sageuks, which inevitably causes some trouble in the palace!

Honey Lee makes a gorgeous gisaeng in “Rebel: Thief Who Stole the People.”

20. Wangja/gun (왕자/군) — Prince

Finally, sons born to the king and a concubine, as well as the sons of Grand Princes, are called “gun” (군), and addressed as “His Excellency” (“daegam”/대감) These princes, as well as Grand Princes, are simply called “wangja” (왕자) until they are old enough for the title.

The more princes, the merrier! Until they start fighting over the throne, that is.

We hope you learned some new words, and maybe some Korean history! If you recognized any of these words and phrases, be sure to let us know in the comments.

hgordon stays up way too late on weeknights marathoning K-dramas and trying to keep up with the latest K-pop releases. She is currently listening for all these words in “Grand Prince.”

Currently watching: “Master in the House,” “Grand Prince,” and “Tempted.”
Looking forward to: “Mr. Sunshine.”
All-time favorite dramas: “Scarlet Heart: Goryeo,” “Goblin,” and “Hwayugi.”

Sours: https://www.soompi.com/article/1148307wpp/your-palace-dictionary-20-must-know-sageuk-vocab-words
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Whether you want to understand basic words in K-pop or K-dramas, impress your Korean friends, or simply deepen your connection to the Korean culture, the Korean Language Starter Pack ensures that you quickly learn and retain the most commonly used Korean words and phrases today. Click here to learn more.

When referring to a person in Korean, very rarely is the actual name of the person used. Instead, different titles are applied depending on age, social hierarchy, and family.

A common word that people know is ajumma (아줌마). This roughly translates to something like an older woman or married woman, however, you have to be careful when to use it.

Calling someone who is obviously not someone old can be very offensive and is almost the equivalent of a curse word. Even if someone looks older, you still would only want to use this word for someone you know is in their late 60s and up. Also, even though the word has a meaning of married woman, you wouldn’t want to call a woman who is married in her 20s or 30s ajumma.

Some more respectful terms you could use are:

아주머님 (a-ju-meo-nim) = Sounds similar to 아줌마 but is more polite and has an added “-님” which makes titles of people sound polite.

어머님 (eo-meo-nim) = This is used to refer to someone else’s mother and can be used in a polite manner as well.

Finally, the word 할머니 (hal-meo-ni) is also used, especially by kids, to refer to an old lady. This word means grandma, but has evolved to take on another meaning as well.

When in doubt, it’s best to use 아주머님 or 할머니 to be respectful and polite when addressing an older lady.

 

Whether you want to understand basic words in K-pop or K-dramas, impress your Korean friends, or simply deepen your connection to the Korean culture, the Korean Language Starter Pack ensures that you quickly learn and retain the most commonly used Korean words and phrases today. Click here to learn more.

Sours: https://domandhyo.com/2021/01/how-to-say-old-lady-in-korean-be-careful-not-to-offend.html
69 세 / An old lady/ Korean movie 2020 Trailer

Whether you’re the youngest or oldest person in a group, you’re expected to behave in a certain way in South Korea. For example, it’s important to show respect to someone who is older or of higher status than you by following expected protocol. This blog will guide you through how to use Korean honorific names and offer you cultural insights, so that you don’t offend Koreans next time you travel to South Korea!

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1. Master List of Korean Honorific Titles

Before we begin, did you know that Korean and International age are different? Try to calculate your 한국 나이 (“Korean age”) the way that Koreans would. Also, keep in mind that there’s numerous ways to address someone who is older than you.

Definition of Each Korean Title:

  • 오빠 (oppa)
    • Literal meaning: “older brother”
    • Is also used to call: A male friend or a male sibling who’s older than you (as a female)
    • Is used by: A younger female to call an older male friend or sibling
    • Example: 정국오빠, 사랑해요! (Jungkook oppa, saranghaeyo!)
  • (hyeong; hyung)
    • Literal meaning: “older brother”
    • Is also used to call: A male friend or a male sibling who’s older than you (as a male)
    • Used by: A younger male to call an older male friend or sibling
    • Example: 정국형 (Jungkook hyung)
  • 언니 (eonni; unnie)
    • Literal meaning: “older sister”
    • Is also used to call: A female friend or a female sibling who’s older than you (as a female)
    • Used by: A younger female to call an older female or sibling
    • Example: 수지언니 (Sooji unnie/eonni)
  • 누나 (nuna; noona)
    • Literal meaning: “older sister”
    • Is also used to call: A female friend or a female sibling who’s older than you (as a male)
    • Used by: A younger male to call an older female or sibling
    • Example: 수지누나 (Sooji noona/nuna)
  • 선배 (sunbae; seonbae)
    • Literal meaning: “senior”
    • Is used to call: A female or male student who’s older than you at school/university
    • Used by: A younger female or male student
    • Example: If you’re a senior at a university and your friend is a freshman, you’re 선배 (sunbae/seonbae) to them.
    • Opposite word of 선배 (sunbae; seonbae) is 후배 (hu-bae)
  • 후배 (hubae; hoobae)
    • Literal meaning: “junior”
    • Is used to call: A female or male student who’s younger than you at school/university
    • Used by: An older student to call someone who’s younger than him/her
    • Example: If your friend is a freshman at a university and you’re a senior, your friend is 후배 (hu-bae).
    • Opposite word of 후배 (hu-bae) is 선배 (sunbae; seonbae)
  • 동생 (dongsaeng)
    • Literal meaning: “younger sibling”
    • Is used to call: A younger male or female sibling or any friend who’s younger than you (as a female/male)
    • Used by: An older male/female or an older sibling to one who’s younger than them
    • Side note: You don’t use this word when you call them. Call them by name.
    • Example:
      • 걔는 내 여자친구가 아니야. 그냥 아는 동생이야.
      • Gyaeneun nae yeoja chinguga aniya. Geunyang aneun dongsaengiya.
      • “She’s not my girlfriend. She’s just a younger friend I know.”
  • 여동생 (yeodongsaeng)
    • Literal meaning: “younger sister”
    • Is used to call: A younger female sibling or any female who’s younger than you (as a female/male)
    • Used by: An older male/female or an older sibling to a female who’s younger than them
    • Side note: You don’t use this word when you call them. Call them by name.
    • Example:
      • 내 여동생 소개할게; 이름은 김수진이야. 수진아, 인사해.
      • Nae yeodongsaeng sogaehalge; ireumeun Kim Sujiniya. Sujina, insahae.
      • “Let me introduce my sister; her name is Kimk Sujin. Hey Sujin, say hi.”
  • 남동생 (namdongsaeng)
    • Literal meaning: “younger brother”
    • Is used to call: A younger male sibling or any male who’s younger than you (as a female/male)
    • Used by: An older male/female or an older sibling to call a male who’s younger
    • Side note: You don’t use this word when you call them. Call them by name.
    • Example:
      • A: 준철이 어디 있어? (Juncheori eodi isseo?) “Where is Juncheol?”
      • B: 아, 내 남동생? 지금 피씨방에 있어. (A, nae namdongsaeng? jigeum pissibange isseo.) “Ah, my brother? He is at PC bang.”
  • (ssi)
    • Literal meaning: “Mr./Miss/Mrs.”
    • Is used to call: Someone whom you need to show some respect to
    • Used for: Business environment
    • Example: 소희씨 (Sohuissi)
  • (nim)
    • Literal meaning: “Mr./Miss/Mrs.” (It’s more polite and respectful than 씨[ssi])
    • Is used to call: Someone whom you need to show some respect to
    • Used for: Business environment
    • Example: 소연님 안녕하세요 (Soyeonnim annyeonghaseyo)
  • 어머님 (umonim; eomeonim)
    • Literal meaning: 어머니 (eomeoni) “mother”
    • Is an honorific form of 어머니 (eomeoni) “mother”
    • Is used to call: A mother-in-law or your acquaintance’s mother
    • Used by: female/male
    • Synonyms: 엄마 (eomma) A casual way to say “mother”
  • 아버님 (abunim)
    • Literal meaning: 아버지 (abeoji) “father”
    • Is an honorific form of 아버지 (abeoji) “father”
    • Is used to call: A father-in-law or your acquaintance’s father
    • Used by: female/male
    • Synonyms: 아빠 (appa) A casual way to say “father”
    • Example: 좋은 말씀 감사합니다! (Joeun malsseum gamsahamnida) “Thanks for your kind words!”
  • 아주머니 (ajumoni)
    • Literal meaning: “middle-aged woman; madam”
    • Is used to call: A woman in her forties to sixties
    • Used by: female/male
    • Synonyms: 아줌마 (ajumma) A casual way to say 아주머니 (ajumoni)
    • Although 아줌마 is commonly used in daily life (compare to 아주머니) , it may offend some women. Therefore, if you’re not sure how to draw the attention of a middle-aged woman, just attract her attention by saying 죄송한데요… (Joesonghandeyo…) “Excuse me.”
  • 아저씨 (ajusshi)
    • Literal meaning: “middle-aged man; mister”
    • Is used to call: A man in his forties to sixties
    • Used by: female/male
    • Example: 아저씨, 이거 얼마예요? (Ajeossi, igeo eolmayeyo?) “How much is this?”
  • 할아버지 (halabuji)
    • Literal meaning: “grandfather”
    • Is used to call: An old man over seventy years old
    • Used by: female/male
    • Example: 할아버지 편찮으세요? (Harabeoji pyeonchaneuseyo?) “Are you feeling okay, grandfather?”
  • 할머니 (halmeoni)
    • Literal meaning: “grandmother”
    • Is used to call: An old woman over seventy years old
    • Used by: female/male
    • Example: 할머니, 새해 복 많이 받으세요! (Halmeoni, saehae bok mani badeuseyo!) “Happy New Year, grandmother!”
  • 아가씨 (agassi)
    • Literal meaning: “young lady; miss”
    • Is used to call: A young lady who isn’t married yet
    • Used by: older people
    • Example: 아가씨, 혈액형이 뭐예요? (Agassi, hyeoraekyeongi mwoyeyo?) “What is your blood type?”
  • 이모님 (imonim)
    • Literal meaning: “my aged aunt”
    • Is used to call: A woman in her fifties to sixties
    • Used for: Restaurants in the casual atmosphere
    • Used by: female/male
    • Example: (at a restaurant)
      • 이모(님)! 여기 소주 한 병 주세요!
      • Imo(nim)! Yeogi soju han byeong juseyo
      • Imo(nim)! Please give me a bottle of Soju!”

Korean Friends

To add a Korean title is very easy. What you need to do is ask a person’s Korean age and her/his name. After that, just add Korean honorifics after their names. For example:

  • 철수 (Chulsoo) + 형 (hyung) = 철수 형 (Chulsoo hyung)
  • 지민 (Jimin) + 오빠 (oppa) = 지민 오빠 (Jimmin oppa)
  • 효린 (Hyorin) + 언니 (unnie) = 효린 언니 (Hyorin unnie)
  • 현아 (Hyuna) + 누나 (noona/nuna) = 현아 누나 (Hyuna noona/nuna)

In general, don’t use 여동생 (yeodongsaeng) or 남동생 (namedongsaeng) to call someone who’s younger than you. Call them by their name, such as 지민아 (jimina), 혜지야 (hyejiya). If you don’t have a Korean name, there won’t be any 아 or 야 after your name, so it will be only 제이슨 (jeiseun), 테레사 (teresa), 민탕 (mintang), 리하오 (rihao). For those who don’t know how to write your own name in Korean or want to have a Korean name, KoreanClass101 has a page dedicated to writing Korean names. In Korea, when you meet someone for the first time, the conversation below is often:

소희: 소연 씨는 한국 나이로 몇 살이에요?
Sohee: Soyeon ssineun hanguk nairo myeot sarieyo?
“How old are you Soyeon?”

소연: 한국 나이로 25살이에요.
Soyeon: Hanguk nairo 25 sarieyo.
“I am 25 years old (Korean age).”

소희: 아, 난 올해 26살인데!
Sohee: A, nan olhae 26 sarinde!
“I see, I am 26 years old!”

소연: 아, 그렇군요, 앞으로 소희언니라고 부를게요.
Soyeon: A, geureokunyo, apeuro sohuieonnirago bureulgeyo.
“I see, I will call you Sohee unnie from now on.”

A. Cultural Insight: What it Means to be Older

In Korea, age is important and addressing someone with an appropriate title is crucial. Also, you need to show respect to someone who is one year older or even just a few months older than you. This might sound crazy at first, but if you happen to be older than other fellows, there are many benefits you can enjoy:

Korean Culture

1- Benefits of Being Older in Korea

1. You can order 동생 (dongsaeng) “young fellows” to do things for you.
If you’re older (either 오빠/형 oppa; hyung/hyeong or 언니/누나 unni/unnie; noona/nuna) and want to ask someone to bring you something or do things for you, you’re allowed to do this simply because you’re older. You can request simple tasks such as bringing you the phone (if it’s far from you), buying some food for you from the supermarket, and many other small tasks that you don’t want to do.

2. Others will show respect to you by bowing to you.
Koreans don’t wave or shake hands to say hello or goodbye to their seniors. You need to bow to elders to show courtesy. Also, did you know that there are different degrees of the bow to show politeness? A fifteen-degree bow is a very common way of greeting elders, and a forty-five-degree bow is to show the highest degree of politeness. Pro tip: Pay attention to 한국 드라마 (hanguk deurama) “Korean dramas.”

3. People will speak to you with formal language.
Do you know how to say a formal and informal “hello” in Korean? You can not say 안녕 (annyeong)—which is an informal greeting in Korean—to someone who is older than you. 안녕 (annyeong) is used when you’re speaking with someone of the same age or someone who is younger than you. If you want to greet an older person, you need to use formal language. In this case, you need to say 안녕하세요 (annyeong haseyo) which is a formal greeting in Korean.

Let’s see if you can distinguish the difference:

A: 효린아, 안녕. 주말 잘 보냈어?
Hyorina, annyeong. Jumal jal bonaesseo?
“Hello, Hyorin. How was your weekend?”

B: 효린 언니/누나, 안녕하세요. 주말 잘 보내셨어요?
Hyorin unni/unnie; noona/nuna, annyeonghaseyo. Jumal jal bonaesyeosseoyo?
“Hello, Hyorin unnie. How was your weekend?”

Which sentence uses formal language? Which one uses informal language? That’s right. A is informal language and B is formal language. Here’s another example. Let’s say that you’re working on a group assignment and you found out that you’re the youngest in the group. Which expression is most likely used by you?

A: 나 지금 어디 빨리 가야 해서, 나중에 얘기하자.
Na jigeum eodi ppalli gaya haeseo, najunge yaegihaja.
“Sorry, I have to go somewhere quickly, let’s talk later.”

B: 선배님, 그럼 연락처 알려주시겠어요?
Seonbaenim (or Sunbaenim), geureom yeollakcheo allyeojusigesseoyo?
“Okay, seonbaenim (or Sunbaenim), can I have your contact number?”

Korean Girl

2- Disadvantages of Being Older in Korea

However, regardless of how you can take advantages of these things mentioned above, there are also downsides about being older in a group:

1. You are expected to pay for the lunch/dinner.
Have you ever heard someone say 내가 한턱 쏜다! (Naega hanteok ssonda) or 내가 쏠께 (Naega ssolkke)? It means “This is on me!” and these expressions are often used in South Korea, so it’s good to memorize them. You may be expected to pay for many activities such as lunch, dinner, movies, and so on if you’re older, and this is accepted in the workplace as well.

(You ordered some food at a café and 선배님 wants to pay for you.)

선배: 내가 오늘 한턱 쏜다!
Naega oneul hanteok ssonda!
“Today, it’s all on me!”

후배: 우와, 선배님 짱! 감사합니다!
Uwa, sunbaenim jjang! Gamsahamnida!
“Wow, thank you, sunbae (or seonbae)!”

2. You need to lead the group.
People show a decent respect to you, follow your orders, use formal language, and even bow to you when greeting. It does feel great, right? However, did you know that they expect you to show a strong leadership in return? Also, if they trust you, they will come to you to receive advice as well. So be prepared for it!

3. It might become difficult for you to make friends.
When you take advantage of your power, it may be fun for you in the beginning, but be prepared for consequences. No one wants to be with someone who likes controlling people. So be cautious of your actions.

B. Cultural Insight: What it Means to be Younger

Korean Child

If you’re younger or the youngest in a group, there are a number of things you’ll need to do for older people, including:

1- Use formal language/bow every time you meet them.
As explained above, you need to show respect to someone who is older or who has higher status than you. This may be challenging at first if you’re not used to it, but using appropriate Korean honorific titles is important in South Korea, so do your best to use these! Also, show some respect by bowing to them. There may also be times where you have to follow their orders even if you don’t want to, but it really depends on the person, so don’t worry too much about this.

A lot of students who are learning Korean struggle with 존댓말 (jondaenmal) “formal language,” but don’t worry, it takes time to get used to these Korean honorifics. If you’re able to use Korean honorific expressions when speaking to people in Korea, they will be surprised at first (because you’re fluent in Korean!) but they’ll also show great respect to you in return. Let’s try to learn a few different Korean honorifics:

– When you speak to a professor:
교수님, 집에 고양이 키우고 계세요? (formal language)
Gyosunim, jibe goyangi kiugo gyeseyo?
“Professor, are you raising a cat at home?”

– When you speak to a male who’s older than you
지민오빠, 집에 고양이 키우고 계세요? (formal language)
Jimin oppa, jibe goyangi kiugo gyeseyo?
Jimin oppa, are you raising a cat at home?”

– When you speak to someone who’s the same age as you
영웅아, 집에 고양이 키워? (informal language)
Yeongung-a, jibe goyangi kiwo?
Yeongung, are you raising a cat at home?”

2- Unless they allowed you to do so, never use informal language.
Not all Koreans strictly follow this rule as more and more people in Korea want to establish close relationships with others of different ages and backgrounds. Some 형 (hyeong; hyung), 누나 (noona; nuna), 오빠 (oppa), 언니 (unnie; unni), and 선배 (sunbae) allow 남동생 (namedongsaeng), 여동생 (yeodongsaeng), 후배 (hubae; hoobae) to speak 반말 (banmal) “informal language” in order to build a closer relationship with them and to erase hierarchy. However, it’s important to understand that you can’t use 반말 (banmal) unless you have been told to do so. If you start speaking informal language suddenly, there is a high chance that you’ll offend them.

2. Business/Work Titles

Korean Greeting

We’ve learned from the list of Korean honorific titles that if there’s someone who is older or has higher status than you at work, he or she will most likely call your name by [name]씨. There are many other titles that you can use in the workplace. For instance, if you want to call your colleagues and superiors, you can use [name]님 or [name]대리님 or another work title accordingly.

Here’s a list of commonly used work titles in Korea (ordered from higher status to lower status):

TitleRomanizationMeaning
회장님hoejang-nim“Chairman(woman)”
사장님sajang-nim“President” or “CEO”
전무이사님jeonmuisa-nim“Sr. Managing Director”
상무이사님sangmooisa-nim“Managing Director”
이사님isa-nim“Director”
부장님bujang-nim“Division Head”
차장님chajang-nim“Vice Head of a Division”
과장님gwajang-nim“Head of a Unit”
대리님daeri-nim“Assistant Manager”
팀장님timjang-nim“Team Leader”
사원sawon“Employee”

If you want to call someone from your work, simply add an appropriate title after his or her name.

For example:

  • 윤서 대리님 (yunseo daerinim)
  • 민경 과장님 (mingyeong gwajangnim)
  • 민호 이사님 (minho isanim)

Keep in mind that not all Korean companies strictly follow these rules. Other (foreign) companies 외국계 회사 (oegukgye hoesa) “a foreign-affiliated firm” or start-up companies use either English names or 님 to everyone to allow for flat organization.

3. Be Careful When You Use Korean Honorific Titles!

Korean Flag

It can be difficult to learn at first because there are many rules that you need to remember. Here are some tips for you to memorize so that you don’t make these mistakes in the future!

To call a taxi driver:
Don’t: 택시기사씨 (taeksigisassi)
Do:택시기사님 (taeksigisanim); 기사님 (gisanim)

To call an old lady:
Don’t: 아주머니씨 (ajumonissi); 아줌마씨 (ajummassi)
Do:아주머니 (ajumoni), 아줌마 (ajumma)

To call an old man:
Don’t: 아저씨씨 (ajusshissi); 아저씨님 (ajussinim)
Do:아저씨 (ajusshi)

To call a grandfather:
Don’t: 할아버지님 (halabujinim)
Do:할아버지 (halabuji)

4. KoreanClass101 Can Help You Improve Your Korean

KoreanClass101 has a lesson that discusses Korean honorifics in detail, so please check out our free Korean lesson “Show People Respect with Korean Honorific Speech.”

Even if you can read and understand Korean well, it can be problematic if you can’t pronounce the language properly. We have a free lesson on “How to Sound Like a Native: Korean Pronunciation” as well, so please check it out!

If you have any questions regarding the Korean language, culture, and more, check out our KoreanClass101 forum.

감사합니다 (polite form of “thank you” in Korean). We hope that you learned a lot of Korean honorifics today! Go put them to good use on your next visit to Korea!

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - How to Improve Your Language Skills!

Posted by KoreanClass101.com in Korean Culture, Korean Language

Sours: https://www.koreanclass101.com/blog/2019/01/03/korean-honorific-titles/

Lady older word korean for

lady in Korean

Beeline Language Korean is all about learning the Korean language and culture. In Korean culture, politeness and respect is the key to treat elderly people, so there are different terms of calling people who are older than you. The same sentence can be said in different ways depending on which person you are speaking to. For example, the way you say hello to older people would be different from the way you would say hello to your friends. Today, we will learn how to say lady in Korean, with these rules in our mind.

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How to say Lady in Korean

This is how to say Lady in Korean: 숙녀 [sook-nyeo]

Sample Sentences Using Lady in Korean

신사 숙녀 여러분, 이제부터 쇼를 시작 하겠습니다. [shin-sa sook-nyeo yeo-reo-boon, ee-jae-boo-teo show-reul si-jak ha-get-seup-ni-da].

Ladies and gentlemen, the show will begin now.

이 숙녀분에게 자리를 안내해 주세요. [ee-sook-nyeo-boon-ae-gae ja-ri-reul an-nae-hae joo-se-yo].

Please guide this lady to her seat.

Other Ways to say Lady in Korean

Korea is known to have many different words for one meaning. How to say lady in Korean is no exception to the rule. Many people would say 아가씨 [ah-ga-ssi] is also acceptable term for a lady in Korean. However, when you are trying to say ‘ladies and gentlemen’ in Korean, you must say 신사 숙녀 여러분.

Some may say마님 [ma-nim] is appropriate to substitute for lady in Korean but this is more for ‘madam’ in Korean. 마님 is usually used to call the wife of the ruler of the house in a traditional Korean household. Similarly, if you are calling a lady who is a bit older, you could call them 부인 [boo-in], which could be translated into ‘ma’am’ in Korean.

Now you know how to say lady in Korean, share with your friends about what you have learned today!

Happy Studying!

Related

Sours: https://www.beelinelanguage.com/how-to-say-lady-in-korean/
Pretty Native Korean Words that You Didn’t Know Existed!!!

Ajumma

Look up 아줌마 or 아주머니 in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Ajumma (Korean: 아줌마), sometimes spelled ajoomma, is a Korean word for a married, or middle-aged woman. It comes from the Korean word Ajumeoni (Korean: 아주머니).[1] Although it is sometimes translated "aunt", it does not actually refer to a close family relationship. It is most often used to refer to middle-aged or older woman since referring to an elder by name without a title in Korea is not socially acceptable.

Ajumma is a less polite term than ajumeoni, which means the same thing but is more respectful.[2] In circumstances where the addressed person is not considerably older than the speaker, or is socially higher than the speaker, it is highly likely that the addressee will be offended when called ajumma. Therefore it is better to use ajumeoni, eomonim (a respectful term for someone else's mother), or samonim.

References[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ajumma

Now discussing:

Oppa, Hyung, Noona, Unnie, Sunbae, and Hubae – Learn Essential Korean Words

In this article, we will explain the meaning of Oppa (오빠), Hyung (형), Noona (누나), and Unnie (언니).  As a bonus, we’ll also be talking about two other words that you’ll hear quite a lot: Sunbae (선배) and Hubae (후배).

The direct translations are:

    • Meaning of Oppa (오빠) = older brother
    • Meaning of Hyung (형) = older brother
    • Meaning of Noona (누나) = older sister
    • Meaning of Unnie (언니) = older sister

As for the bonus words,  the direct translations are:

    • Meaning of Sunbae (선배) = Sunbae means senior
    • Meaning of Hubae  (후배)=  Hubae means Junior

However, the actual meanings are quite different than the translations in English. 

We’ll explain what they mean and when to use them. Let’s go!

Oppa Noona Hyung Unnie

We’ve included a free PDF version of this lesson that you can take with you on the go. Check it out below:

Get The Meaning of Oppa, Hyung, Noona, Unnie Free PDF

In this article, we’ll give you the romanized form of the Korean Words as well as their version in the Korean alphabet (한글 | hangeul). If you can’t read the Korean alphabet yet, we highly recommend you learn. It’ll help improve the speed of your Korean learning!

Contents

  • 1 The meaning of oppa (오빠), hyung (형), noona (누나), and unnie (언니)
    • 1.1 What does Oppa (오빠) mean?
    • 1.2 What does Unnie (언니) mean?
    • 1.3 What does Hyung (형) mean?
    • 1.4 What does Noona (누나) mean?
    • 1.5 When to use oppa (오빠), hyung (형), noona (누나), and unnie (언니)
    • 1.6 Who can use oppa (오빠), hyung (형), noona (누나), and unnie (언니)?
    • 1.7 Using Oppa (오빠), Hyung (형), noona (누나), and unnie (언니) at school and work.
  • 2 Korean words for friends and acquaintances
  • 3 Seonbae (선배) and Hubae (후배)
  • 4 Korean Culture & Age

The meaning of oppa (오빠), hyung (형), noona (누나), and unnie (언니)

The Korean words Oppa (오빠) and Hyung (형) mean “older brother.” Meanwhile, the Korean words noona (누나) and unnie (언니) mean “older sister.”

However, the meaning of these terms expands much further than just your blood-related siblings. Here’s how to use each one.

What does Oppa (오빠) mean?

오빠 (oppa) = older brother (females speaking to older males)

The Korean word Oppa (오빠) is used when you are a woman and talking with an older male (related to you or not). For example, Oppa (오빠) is used to address an older male friend, even if he is not your older brother by blood.

If you’re a woman who has a male friend older than you are, you call him Oppa. If you’re a man and an older brother of a female child, your little sister will also call you Oppa.

This video shows the meaning of Oppa (오빠) 

What does oppa (오빠) mean?

What does Unnie (언니) mean?

언니 (unnie) = older sister (females speaking to older females)

If you are a woman and another woman is older than you, the word to call them by is 언니 (unnie).

The most common way to write 언니 in romanized English is “unnie.” If you are following the romanization rules, then it is spelled “eonni.” You may also see 언니 (unnie) written as “oni” or “uni.” 

Check out the video below to learn more about the word Unnie (언니).

What does the Korean word "unnie" (언니 | eonni) mean?

What does Hyung (형) mean?

형 (hyung) =  older brother (males speaking to older males)

If you are a man in the company of older males,  you should refer to them as Hyung (형). The title Hyung (형) may also be written as “hyeong.” 

Check out the video below to learn more about the word Hyung (형).

What does the Korean word 형 (hyung) mean?

What does Noona (누나) mean?

누나 (noona) = older sister (males speaking to older females)

A younger brother or a younger man will use the Korean word. 누나 (noona) to address a female friend who is older. 

For example, 누나 (Noona) is used to address an older female for males, even if she is not your older sister by blood.

So, if you’re a man who has a female friend older than you are, you call her Noona. If you’re a woman and an older sister of a male sibling, your younger brother will also call you Noona.

You may also see 누나 spelled as “Nuna.”   

What does 누나 (noona) mean?

When to use oppa (오빠), hyung (형), noona (누나), and unnie (언니)

If there are decades worth of age differences between you two, these terms are less likely to be used.

Even if you’re not talking directly to the people you call Oppa,Hyung, Noona, and Unnie. Whenever you refer to them in a conversation with someone else, you should attach one of these terms after the person’s name you are talking about.

You might want to refrain from using Oppa, Hyung, Noona, and Unnie when meeting people first. On the other hand, if you are in a Korean restaurant, even if the (usually older female) waitresses are strangers to you, it’s not weird for men to call them by 누나 (noona) and women by 언니 (unnie), regardless of the age difference.

Who can use oppa (오빠), hyung (형), noona (누나), and unnie (언니)?

There are also instances and Korean people who might be less fussy about using such terms, especially when dealing with foreigners. Some men might find it odd if Oppa is used by someone when talking to them; some women will chuckle whenever you refer to them as 언니 (unnie).

While some men a year or two younger than the woman are dead set on calling them 누나 (noona) at every turn possible, others will refer to the woman by her name instead. In general, the less age difference there is and the closer you two are, the less important it will be, and many senior citizens no longer care.

Using Oppa (오빠), Hyung (형), noona (누나), and unnie (언니) at school and work.

In school and work environments, more so than your age, other things matter. At work, your title and status take precedence over everything else.  Oppa is used less frequently in the workplace, even with females talking with an older male. For example, it is unusual for a female worker to speak to a male boss and call him Oppa (오빠 ).  In school, it’s the year when you start your studies that will determine what title people should use. These also apply to colleagues of the same status level at work.

Get The Meaning of Oppa, Hyung, Noona, Unnie Free PDF

Korean words for friends and acquaintances

The Korean language is tightly connected with Korean culture and vice versa. Let’s cover a few everyday situations and which words to use.

What does chingu (친구) mean?

As we have learned above, Oppa is used to address an older male friend if you’re a female, unnie for an older sister or older female friend if you’re a female, Hyung for an older brother or older male friend if you’re a male, and noona for an older female friend if you’re a male. But what should you do in cases where the person is the same age as you? In this case, you two can comfortably call each other friends, which is the word 친구 (chingu) in Korea. In this case, likely, you’ll refer to them by name (if you are close).

When to use Noona, Hyung, Oppa and Unnie

What does dongsaeng (동생) mean?

What if you are the older one? Then the other person is your 동생 (dongsaeng)! This term means both little sister and little brother, though if you want to put more emphasis on the gender of the 동생 (dongsaeng) you are talking about, you can add 여 (yeo) for girls and 남 (nam) for boys. However, usually, these gender markers are used only when talking about your actual blood-related siblings. 

Seonbae (선배) and Hubae (후배)

The words  Seonbae (선배) and Hubae (후배) are often used in Korean Universities and workplaces instead of Oppa (오빠), Hyung (형), Noona (누나), and Unnie (언니).

What does 선배 (seonbae) mean?

Simply put, sunbae means senior. Sunbae (more commonly spelled as “seonbae”) refers to people who have more experience in work, school, etc. Whether the person is older than you or not, if they started earlier than you did, you should call them 선배 (seonbae).

What does 후배 (hubae) mean?

If Sunbae means senior, what would you call someone who started later than you in work, school, etc.? In this case, you may call them후배 (hubae), which means “Junior.” Hubae is a Korean word that refers to people who have less experience than you.  For example, your friends at university who started later than you can be referred to as 후배 (hubae), aka “junior.”

Korean Culture & Age

In Korea, it’s essential to know the age of the person that you are dealing with and refer to them accordingly. For example, you might greet someone in a different way depending on your age difference. 

You might have come to Korea from a Western country where “age is just a number,” but that’s quite the opposite in South Korea. Not only that, but Koreans have their own age-calculating system where your age is calculated based on your birth year. When January 1st hits, everyone becomes one year older. Which month you were born doesn’t matter in that sense.

Unnie

However, an additional piece of information regarding this that doesn’t get talked about as much is that, depending on the person, they might calculate their age based on the Lunar calendar instead of the Western New Year. In this case, while your age is still calculated by the year you were born in, people born in, say January of 1993, are still considered the same age as those born in 1992 simply because Lunar New Year hadn’t passed yet by the time they were born. 

Hopefully, this information can help you with your acquaintances and friends. You can use these terms along with some common Korean phrases and get some fun conversations started. You may even hear them in other unexpected situations, such as getting the staff’s attention to order food at a Korean restaurant or as a term of endearment. You can also surprise your Korean friend with these terms. If you don’t meet personally, you can try learning the Korean sentence structure to help you have a smoother conversation with them. 

The more you integrate into Korean culture, the more of these terms you’ll learn, and the more you’ll enjoy your time with Koreans!

Get The Meaning of Oppa, Hyung, Noona, Unnie Free PDF

Sours: https://www.90daykorean.com/oppa-hyung-noona-unnie/


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