Short vowel blend word list

Short vowel blend word list DEFAULT

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long i word list
long u words list

In this post, I’m breaking down long vowel sounds (or long vowel words) to help you teach them when working with struggling readers and spellers.

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what is a long vowel sound

What is a long vowel sound?

Long vowel sounds are vowels that are pronounced the same as their name. You’ll often hear teachers say that long vowels “say their name”.

Long vowels are very common but they can be tricky because there are so many spellings for each long vowel sound.

4 ways to make long vowel sounds

There are actually 4 ways to make long vowel sounds:

  1. Vowels at the end of a syllable make the long sound. For example, in the words meand halo (ha-lo) the vowels are all at the end of a syllable so they make the long sound.
  2. Silent e makes the previous vowel long. The words bike and phone have a silent e at the end that makes the previous vowel long.
  3. Vowel teams can make the long sound. Vowel teams work together to make one sound, and usually, it’s a long vowel sound. For example, boat and meat both have vowel teams that make the long sound.
  4. I or O can be long when they come before two consonants. In words like cold and mind, i and o make a long vowel sound.

Long Vowel Words

Long vowel sound words are words that have vowels that say their name. Below are a few examples:

  • Long a – baby, cake, rain, day, they, weigh
  • Long e – me, eve, hear, meet, piece, candy
  • Long i – silent, bike, light, my
  • Long o – go, home, toe, boat, snow
  • Long u – music, mule, pew, feud
long a words list

Long A Sound

The long a sound can be represented by 8 different spelling patterns:

  1. a – baby
  2. a_e – cake
  3. ai – rain
  4. ay – play
  5. ei – reindeer
  6. eigh – weight
  7. ea – steak
  8. ey – they

Learn more about teaching the long a sound here.

long e words list

Long E Sound

The long e sound can be represented by 8 different spelling patterns:

  1. e – be
  2. e_e – eve
  3. ee – meet
  4. ea – beach
  5. ei – protein
  6. ie – piece
  7. ey – key
  8. y – candy
long i words list

Long I Sound

The long i sound can be represented by 6 different spelling patterns:

  1. i – silent
  2. i_e – shine
  3. ie – pie
  4. igh – light
  5. y – my
  6. y_e – type

You can learn more about teaching the long I sound here.

long o words list

Long O Sound

The long o sound can be represented by 5 different spelling patterns:

  1. o – go
  2. o_e – phone
  3. oe – toe
  4. oa – boat
  5. ow – snow

You can learn more about teaching the long o sound here.

long u words list

Long U Sound

The long u has two sounds: yoo and oo.

sound can be represented by 7 different spelling patterns:

  1. u – music
  2. u_e – mule
  3. ue – rescue
  4. eu – feud
  5. ew – few
  6. oo – food
  7. ou – soup

Tips for teaching the long vowel sounds

Teach one spelling pattern at a time!

I don’t mean one vowel sound, but just one spelling pattern. So for example, if you’re working on long a, you would work on the spelling pattern a silent e (cake, same, cave) until students have mastered it, then move on to ai, and so on. You should not be teaching multiple spelling patterns together, even though they make the same sound.

I know that most programs out there combine all the long vowel sound spelling patterns into one lesson, especially in spelling lists, but this does not work for struggling readers. You need to break it down for them and only do one at a time.

Teach the syllable types.

Because syllables have a lot to do with whether vowels make the short or long sound, if students do not already know the 6 syallable types then teach them along with the long vowel sound.

Here are resources for each syllable type:

Use a variety of activities to practice each spelling pattern.

Games, dictation, word sorts, memory or matching with flashcards, word hunts, textured writing, body spelling, and bingo are all fun ways to practice the long vowel sounds.

The main activity that is often overlooked is dictation. It seems so simple but the task involves listening to a word, deciding on the spelling, and transferring that info to written form. These are all skills that struggling readers need to practice.

Teach the spelling generalizations.

Some of the long vowel spelling patterns are spelling rules that make it easy to remember.

For example, ai is found at the beginning or middle of a syllable, and ay is found at the end of a syllable. [Examples: rain, aim, play, daytime]

Here is another example with long o: oa is found at the beginning or middle of a word, and ow is usually found at the end. [Examples: boat, coach, snow]

long vowel sounds word lists

Long Vowel Word List

I made these word lists to help teach the long vowels. I find it handy to have these on hand when playing phonics games or planning activities for long vowel lessons.

Grab them for free by joining my list below!

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If you’re looking for more tips on teaching reading to struggling learners, check out these other posts:

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how to teach long vowels + free word lists

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15 phonics rules for reading and spelling

When kids and adults learn to read, they’re connecting how words sound to how those sounds are represented by letters. Phonics instruction helps make those connections.

Phonics instruction also teaches spelling patterns and spelling rules. It teaches about parts of words called syllables. Learning common syllable patterns can help people become better readers and spellers.

To thrive in both  reading  and spelling, here are 15 important rules to know.

1. Vowels in syllables

Every syllable of every word must have at least one vowel sound. A vowel can stand alone in a syllable, as in u•nit and an•i•mal. It can also be surrounded by consonants, as in jet, nap•kin, and fan•tas•tic.

2. Short and long vowels

Vowels can make different sounds. The sounds they make depend on where they are in a word. For example, is the vowel followed by a consonant? This helps determine if the vowel makes its short or long sound: go vs. got, she vs. shed, hi vs. him.

When there’s only one vowel in a syllable and it is followed by at least one consonant, the vowel usually makes its short sound. Examples include on, itch, mas•cot, and Wis•con•sin. This pattern is called a “closed syllable” because the consonant “closes in” the short vowel sound.

When there is only one vowel and it is at the end of a syllable, the vowel makes its long sound, as in he and ban•jo. This pattern is called an “open syllable.”

3. Silent e

When is the last letter in a word, and there’s only one other vowel in that syllable, the first vowel in that syllable is usually long and the e is silent, as in sale and in•side. This syllable pattern is called “vowel-consonant-e.”

Some teachers call this the “silent e” rule. Some call it the “magic e” rule. The e gives all its power to the other vowel and makes that vowel use its long sound (“say its name”).

4. Consonant blends and digraphs

Digraph is a fancy word for two letters that represent one sound. In a digraph made of consonants, the two consonants work together to form a new sound. Examples include chap, ship, thin, whiz, and photo. Consonant blends are different. These groups of two or more consonants work together. But unlike digraphs, their individual sounds can still be heard as they’re blended together. Examples include clam, grasp, and scrub.

5. Vowel digraphs

In a vowel digraph, two vowels are side by side. The first vowel is long and says its name. The second vowel is silent, as in boat, paint, and beach.

Sometimes, two vowels work together to form a new sound. This is called a diphthong. Examples include cloud and boil.

6. R-controlled vowels

When a syllable has a vowel that is followed by r, the vowel is “controlled” by the r and makes a new sound. Examples include car, bird, germ, form, and hurt. This rule is sometimes called “bossy r” because the r “bosses” the vowel to make a new sound.

7. The “schwa” sound

Any vowel can make the schwa sound; it sounds like a weak uh or ih. Words like from and final have the schwa sound. Some words have more than one schwa sound, like apartment and banana. It’s the most common sound in the English language.

8. Soft c and hard c, and soft g and hard g

When the letter c is followed by the vowels ei, or y, it usually makes its soft sound. Examples of that are cent, circus, and cyclone. With other vowels, the letter c makes a hard sound, as in cat and cot.

Likewise, when the letter g is followed by the vowels ei, or y, it usually makes its soft sound. Examples of that are gel, giant, and gym. With other vowels, the letter g makes a hard sound, as in gas, gorilla, and yogurt.

9. The “fszl” (fizzle) rule

The letters fsz, and l are usually doubled at the end of a one-syllable word immediately following a short vowel. Examples include stuff, grass, fuzz, and shell. Exceptions include quiz and bus.

10. Ending in k or ck

When a one-syllable word ends with the /k/ sound immediately following a short vowel, it’s usually spelled with ck, as in duck and trick. When the /k/ sound follows a consonant, long vowel sound, or diphthong, it’s usually spelled with k, as in task, cake, soak, and hawk.

11. The /j/ sound and the /ch/ sound

In a one-syllable word, when a /j/ sound immediately follows a short vowel, it’s spelled dge as in badge, hedge, bridge, dodge, and smudge. (The d “protects” the vowel from the “magic e” rule.)

In a one-syllable word, when a /ch/ sound immediately follows a short vowel, it’s usually spelled tch as in catch, fetch, stitch, blotch, and clutch. The exceptions to this rule are such, much, rich, and which.

12. Drop the e with -ing

When words end with a silent e, drop the e before adding -ing. Examples: bike/biking, give/giving, and dodge/dodging. This rule also applies to other suffixes that start with vowels, like -ed, -er, -able, and -ous. Examples: grieve/grievous, excite/excitable, and hope/hoped.

13. Doubling

In a one-syllable word like win where one short vowel is followed by one consonant, double the consonant before adding a suffix that starts with a vowel. Examples: winner, winning, winnable.

14. Plurals

For most words, add s to make them plural, as in cat/cats. But when a singular word ends with s, shchx, or z, add es to make it plural, as in classes, brushes, and foxes.

15. Y rules

To make plural a word that ends in a vowel immediately followed by y, just add s, as in toy/toys. When y immediately follows a consonant, change the y to i and add es. Examples: family/families, pony/ponies, and treaty/treaties.

Suffixes follow a similar set of y rules. When there’s a vowel right before y, keep the y and simply add the suffix. Examples include play/playing and annoy/annoying.

When a word ends with a consonant followed immediately by y, change the y to i before adding suffixes like -ed and -est. Examples include carry/carried and happy/happiest.

But when the suffix begins with i, keep the y and simply add the suffix, as in fly/flying and baby/babyish.

Exceptions to the rules

Most words in the English language follow phonics rules. But any exceptions to these rules need to be taught and memorized for reading and spelling. These words are often found on lists of sight words or high-frequency words.

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CCVC Word Lists

CCVC stands for Consonant Consonant Vowel Consonant. This is a spelling pattern that many English words use. CCVC word lists help with the acquisition of English language skills. Keep reading to find CCVC word lists as well as important phonics information and pointers.

CCVC Word Definition and Lists

CCVC words are different from CVC words, which follow a consonant-vowel-consonant pattern. Beginning readers who have mastered CVC words may be ready to move on to these word lists.

CCVC words have the following qualities:

  • double consonant beginning sounds
  • short vowel sounds
  • end in a consonant other than “w” or “y”
  • one syllable
  • can be nouns or verbs

There are two main categories of CCVC words, depending on their beginning consonant sounds. The following CCVC word lists provide a sampling of what words fall under these classifications.

CCVC Words With Beginning Consonant Blends

Many CCVC words include beginning consonant blends. Common beginning consonant blends include /fl/, /gl/, /sk/, /st/, and other blends in which both letter sounds can be heard. As the early learner progresses in mastering these blends, they are then introduced into the CCVC words themselves.

If you’d like to print this list for easy reference, download and print out the PDF below. It’s a great way to keep students practicing their CCVC words.

CCVC Words





















































































ccvc word list worksheet

View & Download PDF

CCVC Words With Beginning Consonant Digraphs

Consonant digraphs use two letters to create a new sound. These digraphs include words that begin with /ch/, /sh/, and /th/ sounds. CCVC words that start with consonant digraphs still have only one syllable and include a short vowel sound.

Some CCVC words that start with consonant digraphs include:

CCVC Words With Consonant Digraphs
















Why CCVC Words?

The simplest words are learned early in life and are called regular words. Regular words are those words in which all the letters in a word represent their most common sounds. The second most difficult group of regular words are known as CCVC (consonant consonant vowel consonant) words.

CCVC Difficulties

One reason that CCVC words are considered among the most difficult regular words is the consonant blend at the beginning. As beginning readers and spellers tend to sound out individual sounds they associate with each letter, the learner may struggle to create a blended sound to produce the correct sound combination that matches the word.

Taking the word frog, for example. A beginning reader may sound the letters out loud one at a time: /ef/ /ar/ /oh/ /gee/. A possible initial pronunciation could be phonetically described as /ef/ /rog/. The early reader has already achieved a basic mastery of CVC words. It is easier to process frog as the initial consonant sound followed by a CVC construction (rog) that makes sense to them.

Language Evaluations

Regular evaluation of basic phonic mastery and spelling can determine normal childhood language development. It’s important to investigate and evaluate failure to achieve a basic mastery of phonetics, as this may indicate learning disabilities or neurological factors. Use the above lists to regularly check students’ progress when it comes to reading CCVC words.

Phonics remain a staple of early spelling and word recognition and CCVC words can present early challenges to young learners. Try a graduated approach to these more complicated regular words by building on the consonant combinations. You can then teach the incorporation of the blends into whole words.

Phonics Practice Makes Perfect

Beginning readers who can read CVC and CCVC words are on the right track toward reading success. Connect your phonics practice sessions with lessons on sight words. Or, if students are ready to show what they know, use these printable reading comprehension worksheets in your next reading lesson.

Renee Banzhaf

M.Ed. English Education


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Vowel list short blend word

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Blending 2 letters: Consonant and Vowel ( CV) Short a sound // Phonics for Beginners

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